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Rekrutierung billiger Arbeitskräfte und deren Auswirkung auf schulische Leistungen ...

„Schon bei PISA 2006 lag aufgrund dieser Einwanderungspolitik der Migrantennachwuchs in Deutschland und Österreich tiefer unter den Leistungen der Alteingesessenen als in den übrigen untersuchten 56 Ländern. Kanada dagegen wurde beim selben Test zum ersten Land, in dem Migrantenkinder die einheimischen schulisch übertrafen.“

 

Kanada verschärfte seine selektive Einwanderungspolitik ...

„Der ‚Immigration and Refugee Protection Act‘ (IRPA) von 2002 fordert von Neuankömmlingen grundsätzlich Überqualifizierung, weil man von oben nach unten – von Pilot auf Taxifahrer – lernen kann, aber nicht umgekehrt.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Gunnar Heinsohn. In: ÖIF (Hrsg.), „Perspektiven Integration - Parallelgesellschaften“ (2017), S. 35

 

Was ausländische Bildungsteilnehmer im Durchschnitt bezahlen ...

„In Australien, Kanada, Neuseeland und den Vereinigten Staaten bezahlen ausländische Bildungsteilnehmer im Durchschnitt mehr als 10.000 US-Dollar mehr pro Jahr als inländische Bildungsteilnehmer. In Polen und Schweden ist der Besuch des Tertiärbereichs an öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen für inländische Bildungsteilnehmer kostenlos, während Bildungsteilnehmer aus Ländern außerhalb der EU mehr als 4.500 US-Dollar für einen Bachelorbildungsgang zahlen müssen.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 265

 

In vielen Ländern zahlen internationale Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich höhere Bildungsgebühren als inländische Bildungsteilnehmer ...

„In vielen Ländern zahlen internationale Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich höhere Bildungsgebühren als inländische Bildungsteilnehmer. Die Differenz ist in Australien und Kanada besonders groß. Hier bezahlen internationale Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich dreimal so viel wie inländische Bildungsteilnehmer, ebenso in Schweden, wo internationale Bildungsteilnehmer jährlich zwischen 9.000 US-Dollar (öffentliche Einrichtungen) und 10.400 US-Dollar (private Einrichtungen) bezahlen, während sich inländische Bildungsteilnehmer kostenlos einschreiben konnen.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 368

 

Teaching is a profession that is well respected by the Canadian public ...

„Teaching is a profession that is well respected by the Canadian public. A 2013 survey conducted by the Alberta Teachers association found that 9 in 10 teachers agreed that they are very committed to teaching as a profession and that in public they are proud to say that they are teachers.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Empowered Educators“ (2017), S. 31

 

In Ontario, initiatives after 2003 have substantially improved the status and attractiveness of teaching ...

„In Ontario, initiatives after 2003 have substantially improved the status and attractiveness of teaching because an era of teaching bashing and disinvestment in public education was replaced by a supportive approach from the provincial government.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Empowered Educators“ (2017), S. 53

 

All new teachers in Ontario working with trained mentors ...

Ontario: „Induction programs are particularly well developed, with all new teachers in Ontario working with trained mentors as part of the 2-year New Teacher Induction Program. Mentors and mentees receive shared release time for collaborative planning, classroom observation, or assessment of student work designed to enhance teachers‘ practice, efficacy, and support their commitment to continuous professioneal learning.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Empowered Educators“ (2017), S. 31

 

Kanada sucht sich seine Migranten gezielt nach Qualifikation und Sprachkenntnissen aus ...

„Kanada sucht sich seine Migranten gezielt nach Qualifikation und Sprachkenntnissen aus. Kaum jemand hat je zur Kenntnis genommen, dass Finnland in den Leistungen zu den Ländern gehört, die den größten Abstand zwischen Einheimischen und den Migrantenkindern überhaupt aufweisen.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hartmut Esser, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung online am 24. Oktober 2016

 

Das sozioökonomische Niveau der Elternhäuser ...

„In den skandinavischen Staaten Finnland, Schweden oder Norwegen sowie der Schweiz oder Kanada liegt der sozioökonomische Status signifikant über dem OECD-Mittelwert.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Kristina Reiss u. a., „PISA 2015. Eine Studie zwischen Kontinuität und Innovation“ (2016), S. 291f

 

Absentismus ...

„Auffallend hohe Quoten von Schulleitungen, die das Lernen und Schulklima an ihrer Schule durch Absentismus gefährdet sehen, finden sich in Finnland (44 Prozent), Österreich (49 Prozent), Slowenien (53 Prozent) und Kanada (56 Prozent).“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Kristina Reiss u. a., „PISA 2015. Eine Studie zwischen Kontinuität und Innovation“ (2016), S. 210

 

Kanada: The proportion of well-qualified migrants has continued increasing in 2014 ...

Kanada: „The proportion of well-qualified migrants has continued increasing in 2014, with more than half (52 %) of permanent residents between 25 and 64 years of age having completed post-secondary studies with a bachelor’s or master’s degree or a doctorate.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „International Migration Outlook 2016“ (2016), S. 246

 

Doppelt so viel Unterrichtszeit ...

„In Canada, Chile, Denmark and Hong Kong (China), 15-year-olds spend five hours per week in language-of-instruction classes, while students in Austria, Finland and Russia spend less than 2 hours and 30 minutes per week in these classes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 43

 

Instruction in at least one subject in an ability-grouped class ...

„In Australia, Canada, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, Israel, Malta, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the United States and Viet Nam, at least three in four students receive instruction in at least one subject in an ability-grouped class.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 176

 

Expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions ...

„In 2013, expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions relative to GDP reached 6 % or more in Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 200

 

A number of European countries tend to receive more immigrants ...

„A number of European countries tend to receive more immigrants with lower education and a fluctuating inflow of migrants, while Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States have more well-educated immigrants and a stable inflow.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 75

 

Migrants share main official languages ...

„Close to half of the migrants arriving in Canada, France and the United Kingdom arrive from a country sharing one of the main official languages.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Working Together: Skills and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants and their Children in Sweden“ (2016), S. 106

 

The European Union attracted proportionally fewer well educated Chinese migrants ...

„The European Union attracted proportionally fewer well educated Chinese migrants than other OECD destinations – 16.9 % of all Chinese migrants, compared with 42.5 % in the United States and 40 % in Australia and Canada.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Recruiting Immigrant Workers – Europe“ (2016), S. 87

 

Utilising immigrants’ full skills is a challenge ...

„Experience from Canada and Switzerland shows that utilising immigrants’ full skills is a challenge, but that well-developed apprenticeship schemes help integration of low-skilled immigrants and their children.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Economic Surveys – Finland“ (2016), S. 38

 

The Netherlands is in the 7th position among OECD countries behind Switzerland ...

„The Netherlands is in the 7th position among OECD countries behind Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Luxembourg, Ireland and Canada in terms of attracting talent. Likewise, the country appears to be in a good position to retain talent. It ranks 6th among OECD countries, behind Switzerland, the United States, Norway, Finland and the United Kingdom.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Recruiting Immigrant Workers – The Netherlands 2016“ (2016), S. 196

 

Harsher restrictions when attempting to enter Canada ...

„Anticipating that they will encounter harsher restrictions when attempting to enter Canada, New Zealand and Australia, low-educated individuals intending to move abroad mention as their desired destination countries that impose less restrictions on low-skilled migration.“

Dr. Flore Gubert u.a., „Is the European Union attractive for potential migrants?“ (2016), S. 27

 

Filipino migrants in Europe are less educated ...

„Filipino migrants in Europe are less educated (33.8 % are low-educated and 32.1 % are high-educated) than in the United States and Canada (where low-educated migrants respectively account for 9.8 % and 8.2 % of the stock and high-educated ones account for 54.1 % and 65.9 %).“

Dr. Anda David u. a., „A descriptive analysis of immigration to and emigration from the EU: Where does the EU stand within OECD?“ (2016), S. 27

 

Countries with the highest rates of course-by-course tracking ...

„Internationally, countries with the highest rates of course-by-course tracking are Anglophone countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States) …“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equations and Inequalities“ (2016), S. 96

 

Concentration of immigrants in ‚enclave schools‘ is particularly high in Canada ...

„Across OECD countries, the concentration of immigrants in ‚enclave schools‘ is particularly high in Canada, Greece and Italy.“
Dr. Andreas Schleicher, PISA-Koordinator der OECD, in OECD (Hrsg.), „Immigrant Students at School“ (2015), S. 7

 

Countries with very selective immigration policies ...

„Immigrant students tend to perform at high levels in countries with very selective immigration policies.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Immigrant Students at School“ (2015), S. 30

 

Bereits seit rund fünfzig Jahren steuert Kanada seine Zuwanderung ...

„Bereits seit rund fünfzig Jahren steuert Kanada seine Zuwanderung über ein Punktesystem, bei dem etwa Sprachkenntnisse und Bildungsniveau bewertet werden.“

ÖIF (Hrsg.), „Zusammen:Österreich“ (Frühjahr 2014), S. 27

 

Differences are particularly sharp in Canada ...

„Differences are particularly sharp in Canada where 58 % of foreign-born have higher education versus only 11 % with low education, in Estonia (44 versus 8 %), the United Kingdom (48 % versus 19 %) and Poland (46 % versus 13 %).“

Sara Bonfanti u. a., „Migrants’ skills: Use, mismatch and labour market outcomes“ in OECD (Hrsg.), „Matching Economic Migration with Labour Market Needs“ (2014), S. 254

 

More than half of the immigrants in Canada ...

„More than half of the immigrants in Canada are highly educated.“

Cansin Arslan u.a., „A New Profile of Migrants in the Aftermath of the Recent Economic Crisis“ (2014), S. 15

 

Number of tutoring businesses in major cities grew between 200 % and 500 % during the 1990s ...

Kanada: „The number of tutoring businesses in major cities grew between 200 % and 500 % during the 1990s.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Mark Bray, „Shadow Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Expansion and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring“ in „Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences“ 77 (2013) S. 414

 

In British Columbia lernen Neueinsteiger in eigenen Kursen stufenweise Englisch ...

„In British Columbia lernen Neueinsteiger in eigenen Kursen stufenweise Englisch. Je besser sie werden, desto mehr andere Fächer kommen hinzu.“

ÖIF (Hrsg.), „Zusammen: Österreich“ (Herbst 2012), S. 10

 

In Australia and Canada, the children of immigrants perform better ...

„In Australia and Canada, the children of immigrants perform better than the children of native-born parents in reading tests, while there are no significant differences in the other Anglo-Saxon countries.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Dustmann u. a., „Educational achievement of second-generation immigrants: an international comparison“ in „Economic Policy“ vom Jänner 2012, S. 164

 

Canada, Ireland, Israel, Luxembourg and the United Kingdom ...

„Canada, Ireland, Israel, Luxembourg and the United Kingdom, are the five OECD countries with the highest share of tertiary graduates among immigrants.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Settling In - OECD Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2012“ (2012), S. 22

 

Students in Canada are grouped by ability in ways that are very similar to the United States’ system ...

„Students in Canada are grouped by ability in ways that are very similar to the United States’ system. Elementary school-aged children are often placed in ability groups within heterogeneous classrooms. Students in secondary schools are placed into tracks or streams, based on perceived ability levels.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education“ (2011), S. 67

 

Canada focuses on highly educated/skilled immigrants ...

„Canada, like Australia and New Zealand, has a highly managed immigration system that focuses on highly educated/skilled immigrants, particularly since the 1980s. Immigrants have, on average, educational attainment levels above that of the Canadian-born.“

Garnett Picot, „Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation“ (2012), S. 8

 

In Canada, the parents of 1st and 2nd generation students are more highly educated than those of the 3rd-and-higher generation ...

„In Canada, the parents of 1st and 2nd generation students are more highly educated than those of the 3rd-and-higher generation (Anm.: üblicherweise als „native“ bzw. „Menschen ohne Migrationshintergrund“ bezeichnet).“

Garnett Picot, „Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland“ (2012), S. 8

 

In Australia, Canada and the UK, the share of the foreign-born population with high education exceeds the share of the native-born population with high education ...

„In Australia, Canada and the UK, the share of the foreign-born population with high education exceeds the share of the native-born population with high education by 5.5 percentage points, 7.3 percentage points and 16.1 percentage points, respectively.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Dustmann u.a., „Migration and Education“ (2011), S. 9

 

Canada has a highly restrictive immigration policy ...

„Canada, for instance, has a highly restrictive immigration policy and admits immigrants based on a system assigning points to such characteristics as level of education and English language proficiency. Immigrants are only admitted if they reach a specified number of points.“

Aileen Edele u.a., „PISA’s Potential for Analyses of Immigrant Students’ Educational Success“. In: Pereyra u.a. (Hrsg.), „PISA Under Examination“ (2011), S. 191

 

Immigration decisions based on indicators of qualifications ...

„Immigration policies differ considerably between countries. Traditional immigration countries, such as Canada or Australia, base immigration decisions on indicators of qualifications immigrants will bring to the labour market.“

Aileen Edele u.a., „PISA’s Potential for Analyses of Immigrant Students’ Educational Success“. In: Pereyra u.a. (Hrsg.), „PISA Under Examination“ (2011), S. 191

 

Kanada: Many immigrant children have highly-educated parents ...

Kanada: „Because the majority of immigrants are selected on the basis of their ability to contribute economically, many immigrant children have highly-educated parents.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education – Lessons from PISA fort he United States“ (2011), S. 71

 

Skill-related earning differences relatively large in the US and Canada ...

„The US and Canada, where skill-related earning differences are relatively large, receive 51.4 % of the OECD's immigrants, but 65.5 % of its immigrants with tertiary schooling. Europe, where skill-related earning differences are relatively small, receives 38.4 % of the OECD's immigrants, but only 23.6 % of its tertiaryschooled immigrants.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jeffrey Grogger u. a., „Income maximization and the selection and sorting of international migrants“ in „Journal of Development Economics“ 95 (2011), S. 42

 

North America receives disproportionately high-skilled migrants ...

„North America receives disproportionately high-skilled migrants, whereas Europe's immigrants are disproportionately low-skilled.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jeffrey Grogger u. a., „Income maximization and the selection and sorting of international migrants“ in „Journal of Development Economics“ 95 (2011), S. 48

 

Leisure reading habits of Canadian students ...

„Comparative PISA data on the leisure reading habits of Canadian students suggest that Canadian students are more likely than any other children in the world to read daily for pleasure.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education – Lessons from PISA fort he United States“ (2011), S. 68

 

Educational levels among second-generation children with Chinese, Indian and African backgrounds ...

Kanada: „Educational levels among second-generation children with Chinese, Indian and African backgrounds are much above those of the third-plus generation.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equal Opportunities? The Labour Market Integration of the Children of Immigrants“ (2010), S. 80

 

Kanada: By 2006 almost 60 % of recently entering male immigrants had a university degree ...

Kanada: „In 1981, one quarter of recently entering male immigrants had a university degree; by 2006 it was almost 60 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equal Opportunities? The Labour Market Integration of the Children of Immigrants“ (2010), S. 104

 

Immigrants from China, India and other Asian countries place a very high value on educational and labour market success for their children ...

Kanada: „Through the 1970s and 1980s increasing numbers of Canadian immigrants came from China, India and other Asian countries that place a very high value on educational and labour market success for their children.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equal Opportunities? The Labour Market Integration of the Children of Immigrants“ (2010), S. 105

 

Private tutoring business saw rapid growth in Canada ...

„In recent years, the private tutoring business saw rapid growth in Canada.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sietske Waslander, „Markets in Education: An Analytical Review of Empirical Research on Market Mechanisms in Education“ (2010), S. 31