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Japan has been a pioneer in private tutoring ...

„Japan has been a pioneer in private tutoring. In 2010, families spent US$12 billion (0.2 percent of GDP) on private tutoring. In the Republic of Korea, families spent US$20 billion or about 1.5 percent of GDP on private tutoring in 2012; these expenses account for 12 percent of household spending. Some 80 percent of elementary, 69 percent of middle school, and 50 percent of high school students used private tutors in 2014.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 121