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„Boys are most responsive to being ranked with respect to grades, whereas girls react most strongly to the incentive of receiving a prize for high rank. […] This could be because girls attach relatively more importance to reflected appraisals, whereas boys attach relatively more importance to social comparisons. Both rank-based incentives and receiving a symbolic reward offer sources of reflected appraisals, while rank-based incentives offer a more direct form of competition and social comparison.“

Nina Jalava u. a., „Grades and rank: Impacts of non-financial incentives on test performance“. In: „Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization“ 115 (2015), S. 189–191