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Asylanerkennungen je 100.000 Einwohner/-innen ...

„Bezogen auf die Bevölkerung lag Österreich 2017 im europäischen Vergleich mit 237 Asylanerkennungen je 100.000 Einwohner/-innen an erster Stelle. Danach folgten Deutschland (187), Luxemburg (184), Schweden (152), Griechenland (92) und Belgien (88). Staaten wie Frankreich (36), Großbritannien (21), Italien (10) und Spanien (1) lagen ebenso wie die osteuropäischen Staaten deutlich unter dem europäischen Durchschnitt von 54.“

Statistik Austria (Hrsg.), „migration & integration - zahlen.daten.indikatoren 2018“ (2018), S. 38

 

Mehr als ein Fünftel der GesamtschulabsolventInnen Spaniens darf die Schullaufbahn nicht fortsetzen ...

„Among younger adults aged 25-34, attainment of at least upper secondary is 65.3 %, well below the OECD average of 84.6 %, which is partly due to more than 20 % (in 2015-16) of lower secondary students failing to graduate with the certificate required to access upper secondary.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Outlook. Spain“ (2018), S. 11

 

Auch Spanien hat inzwischen duale Bildung eingeführt ...

„In 2012, Spain introduced its Dual Vocational Training Model that combines training with employment in companies. The aim of the system is to provide a professional qualification through teaching and learning processes that are harmonised between training institutions and workplaces.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Outlook. Spain“ (2018), S. 12

 

The native-born children of immigrants are more likely than their peers with no migrant background to drop out early ...

„The native-born children of immigrants are more likely than their peers with no migrant background to drop out early in two-fifths of countries, particularly in longstanding European destinations and the Nordic countries. Shares exceed 13 % in Sweden, Austria and Spain. The widest gaps in drop-out rates between pupils of foreign- and native-born parents are in Austria and Slovenia. […] In Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia, young people with a non-EU background are more than twice as likely to drop out as their peers of native-born parentage.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Settling In 2018“ (2018), S. 198

 

Spanien: Salaries for teachers ...

Spanien: „For teachers with 15 years of experience and typical qualifications, salaries in Spain were equivalent or higher than for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education, and exceeded OECD and EU22 averages across levels of schooling in 2015.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Outlook. Spain“ (2018), S. 14

Österreich Lehrergehälter liegen diesbezüglich deutlich unter dem OECD-Durchschnitt. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2017“ (2017), Table D3.2b.)

 

In 2017, 19 % of foreign-born people aged 18 to 24 in the European Union had left school early, compared to 10 % of natives ...

„In 2017, 19 % of foreign-born people aged 18 to 24 in the European Union had left school early, compared to 10 % of natives. The early school leaver rate in Spain was 32 % among the foreign-born and 16 % among natives.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Global Education Monitoring Report 2019“ (2018), S. 40

In Österreich brachen 2017 5,3 % der im Land Geborenen und 18,4 % der Zugewanderten ihre Schullaufbahn vorzeitig ab. (Quelle: Eurostat-Datenbank, Abfrage vom 10. Jänner 2019)

 

The prevalence of bullying varies considerably across Europe ...

„The prevalence of bullying varies considerably across Europe. Lithuania, Belgium, Estonia, Austria and Latvia are some of the countries with relatively high victimisation rates between around 20 % and 30 %, compared to the lower rates of Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic, Croatia, Italy and Spain below 10 %.“

NESET (Hrsg.), „How to Prevent and Tackle Bullying and School Violence“ (2017), S. 6

 

The average duration of school-to-work transition ...

Italien: „The time needed to get 50 % of the youth population into work after school leaving is equal to 5.9 years in Italy – longer than any OECD countries and most developing countries for which data is available. Similarly, the average duration of completed transitions – another measure of school-to-work transition – is 1.7 years and higher levels are found only in Spain (1.8) across the OECD, and South Africa (2.7) across non-OECD countries for which data is available.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Italy 2017“ (2017), S. 147

 

In France, Luxembourg, Portugal or Spain, the rate of grade repetition is as high as 35 % ...

„On average, 13 % of 15-year-olds in the OECD have repeated at least one grade in primary or secondary school. […] In France, Luxembourg, Portugal or Spain, the rate of grade repetition is as high as 35 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Trends Shaping Education 2017“ (2017), Spotlight 8, S. 5

 

Weder erwerbstätig noch in Bildung bzw. Weiterbildung ...

„Auf der Ebene der Mitgliedstaaten war im Jahr 2015 mehr als jeder vierte junge Mensch im Alter von 20 bis 24 Jahren in Italien (31,1 %) sowie in Griechenland (26,1 %) weder erwerbstätig noch in Bildung bzw. Weiterbildung und mehr als jeder fünfte in Kroatien (24,2 %), Rumänien (24,1 %), Bulgarien (24,0 %), Spanien und Zypern (jeweils 22,2 %) befand sich ebenfalls in dieser Lage.“

Eurostat (Hrsg.), Pressemitteilung vom 11. August 2016

 

Viele Länder setzen auf neue/modifizierte duale Ausbildungssysteme ...

„Viele Länder, u. a. das Vereinigte Königreich (modern apprenticeships), Spanien (nuevo contrato de la formación y aprendizaje) und Frankreich (apprentissage nouveau), setzen auf neue/modifizierte duale Ausbildungssysteme, um den hohen Jugendarbeitslosigkeits- und Schulabbruchquoten entgegenzuwirken.“

ibw (Hrsg.), „Befragung österreichischer LehrabsolventInnen zwei Jahre nach Lehrabschluss“ (2016), S. 11

 

The largest differences in early leaving between the native population and people born elsewhere are observed in southern Europe and Austria ...

„The largest differences in early leaving between the native population and people born elsewhere are observed in southern Europe (Italy, Spain and Greece) and Austria, with gaps of more than 18 percentage points.“

Eurostat (Hrsg.), „Sustainable development in the European Union“ (2016), S. 44

 

Exceptionally high proportion of adults who scored at or below Level 1 in literacy ...

„Italy (85.4 %), Spain (82.6 %), Korea (79.4 %) and the Netherlands (71.8 %) have an exceptionally high proportion of adults who scored at or below Level 1 in literacy who came from families in which both parents had less than upper secondary level attainment.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Anke Grotlüschen u. a., „Adults with Low Proficiency in Literacy or Numeracy“ (2016), S. 34

 

Spanien: High academic inclusion and low socio-economic inclusion ...

„Some countries and economies, such as the Netherlands, have low academic inclusion (performance varies considerably between schools) and high social inclusion (advantaged and disadvantaged students are relatively evenly distributed across schools), whereas others, like Spain, have high academic inclusion and low socio-economic inclusion.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 173

 

In Italy, Spain and Ireland, around every tenth employee is an involuntary part-time worker ...

„In Italy, Spain and Ireland, around every tenth employee is an involuntary part-time worker. For youth, these rates are twice as high. Especially young women are likely to work shorter hours than they want to: around a quarter of young women aged 15-29 in Spain and Italy, but also in Australia.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Society at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 90

 

Spanien: 56 % of graduates are unemployed one year after graduation ...

Spanien: „56 % of graduates are unemployed one year after graduation and 35 % four years after graduation, while 44.5 % of the graduates employed four years after graduation have jobs that do not require a university degree.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2015 - Country analysis“ (2015), S. 256

 

The proportion of NEETs among 15 to 29 year-olds ...

„The proportion of NEETs among 15 to 29 year-olds in France has been, on average over the last decade, one of the highest in the OECD countries, after Italy, Spain and Greece.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pierre Cahuc u. a., „Youth unemployment in France“. In: Dolado (Hrsg.), „No Country for Young People?“ (2015), S. 47

 

Arbeitsmoral der LehrerInnen ...

„The highest positive values of the index are found for Austria, United Kingdom and Ireland, and the lowest negative values for the index were found in Italy, Spain and Greece.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Teaching Practices in Primary and Secondary Schools in Europe“ (2015), S. 98

 

Menschen mit ihrer Mathematikkompetenz im Risikobereich ...

„For numeracy, almost a quarter (24 per cent) of adults in England scored at Level One or below, a higher proportion than the OECD average of 19 percent. Most countries had a lower proportion of adults at the lowest two numeracy levels than England and only six countries had a higher proportion (Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, France, the United States, Spain and Italy).“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Andy Green u. a., „Why are Literacy and Numeracy Skills in England so Unequal?“ (2015), S. 19

Österreich gehört mit 14 % zu den Staaten, in denen sich die wenigsten Menschen mit ihrer Mathematikkompetenz im Risikobereich (Level One or below) befinden.

 

Italy, together with Spain and Ireland, had the lowest literacy scores among tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds ...

Italy, together with Spain and Ireland, had the lowest literacy scores among tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds who participated in the OECD Survey of Adult Skills.“

OECD (Hrsg.), Education at a Glance. Country Note Italy (2015), S. 4

 

In 2013, Finland, Spain and Greece stand out for having the highest NEET rates among young immigrants who arrived as children …

„In 2013, Finland, Spain and Greece stand out for having the highest NEET rates among young immigrants who arrived as children …“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2015 - Settling In“ (2015), S. 256

 

15- bis 34-Jährige des Jahres 2013 ...

„In Belgien, Spanien und Finnland zählte […] mehr als ein Drittel der im Inland Geborenen mit zwei im Ausland geborenen Elternteilen zur Gruppe der NEET.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Integration von Zuwanderern: Indikatoren 2015“ (2015), S. 260

 

Spanish households responded to immigration by increasing their educational expenditures ...

„Spanish households responded to immigration by increasing their educational expenditures. This result was mainly driven by an important native flight from tuition-free schools toward private ones.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Lídia Farré u. a., „Immigration and School Choices in the Midst of the Great Recession“ (2015), Abstract

 

Bildungsabschlüsse ohne Aussagekraft ...

„In some OECD countries, including Canada, France, Italy, Ireland, Poland, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States, large proportions of young adults who have upper secondary qualifications also perform (Anm.: bei PIAAC) below Level 2 in numeracy.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Outlook 2015“ (2015), S. 38

Italiens, Irlands, Spaniens und Englands unter 30-jährige AkademikerInnen haben, wie die OECD bestätigt, eine geringere Mathematikkompetenz als Österreichs unter 30-Jährige, deren höchster Bildungsabschluss die Sekundarstufe II ist (ibidem, S. 35)

 

Many Spanish students complete late ...

„Many Spanish students complete late. 23 % of students complete school as much as two years later than the rest of their Spanish peers.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Spain 2015“ (2015), S. 48

 

The Spanish rate of young people not in employment, education or training ...

„The Spanish rate of young people not in employment, education or training (as a percentage of the total population) is currently among the highest in Europe: about 18.6 % of young workers in Spain are in this situation, only surpassed by a rate of 22.2 % among Italian youngsters.“

Dr. Ignacio García Pérez u. a., „Youth unemployment in Spain“. In: Dolado (Hrsg.), „No Country for Young People?“ (2015), S. 124

 

Proportion of students reporting that they had repeated a grade in primary, lower secondary or upper secondary school ...

„The largest proportion of students reporting that they had repeated a grade in primary, lower secondary or upper secondary school can be found in Belgium (36.1 %), closely followed by Spain, Luxembourg and Portugal (all exceeding 30 %). […] In France and the Netherlands, the rates of students who repeated a grade are close to 30 %.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Tackling Early Leaving from Education and Training in Europe“ (2014), S. 44

 

Grade repetition in Spain has increased 4 percentage points between 2003 and 2012 ...

„Grade repetition in Spain has increased 4 percentage points between 2003 and 2012, reaching 32.9 % in 2012.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Spain 2015“ (2015), S. 48

Zum Vergleich: In Österreich sind es 11,9 %. (Quelle: Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Tackling Early Leaving from Education and Training in Europe“ (2014), S. 44)

 

Some 13 % of 15-year-olds are reported to have repeated at least one year either in primary or secondary school ...

„Some 13 % of 15-year-olds are reported to have repeated at least one year either in primary or secondary school. This proportion is particularly high in Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain, where it affects over 30 % of students.“

Dr. Andreas Schleicher, PISA-Koordinator der OECD, „Equity, Excellence and Inclusiveness in Education“ (2014), S. 77

In Österreich sind es 11,9 %.

 

Lesekompetenz bei PIAAC ...

Lesekompetenz bei PIAAC: „Italy (250) and Spain (252), but also France (262), fall substantially short of the international performance and constitute the bottom of the international league tables.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ludger Wößmann, „The Economic Case for Education“ (2014), S. 23

 

The proportion of those repeating a year in primary education ...

„The proportion of those repeating a year in primary education is particularly high in six countries (Belgium, Spain, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Portugal), ranging from 12.2 % in Spain to 22.4 % in the Netherlands and Portugal.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Education and Training in Europe 2020“ (2013), S. 23

 

Over 25 % of 15-year-old students in France, Luxembourg, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands reported having repeated a year ...

„Over 25 % of 15-year-old students in France, Luxembourg, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands reported having repeated a year during their school trajectory in primary and secondary education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Synergies for Better Learning“ (2013), S. 210

 

Spanien nimmt an Deutschland Maß ...

„Spanish education has been adjusted to the European standards. As a result, it devotes increasing attention to the very able, mainly according to the German model.“

Istvan Benyhe, „Links between of Spanish Public Education and Gifted Education“. In: Győri, „International horizons of talent support. Best practices within and without the European Union“ (2011), S. 191

 

Spain has joined the international and European systems of talent development ...

Spanien: „The Spanish Public Education Act acknowledges the right of students to have the highest-level public education matching their talents/gifts, and it makes special reference to obligations related to those with outstanding abilities. […] There are numberless new programmes in this area, and Spain has joined the international and European systems of talent development.“

Istvan Benyhe, „Links between of Spanish Public Education and Gifted Education“. In: Győri, „International horizons of talent support. Best practices within and without the European Union“ (2011), S. 191

 

Countries such as Germany, Belgium, Austria, and Switzerland recruited inexpensive and unskilled labourers from the poorest and most rural regions ...

„Countries such as Germany, Belgium, Austria, and Switzerland recruited inexpensive and unskilled labourers from the poorest and most rural regions of Turkey, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Bosnia‑Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia Montenegro.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jaap Dronkers u.a., „Negative Selectivity of Europe's Guest-Workers Immigration?“ (2010), S. 89