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In Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz, Belgien, Dänemark, Finnland, Luxemburg, Slowenien und Schweden ist unter Migranten und deren Nachkommen der Anteil leistungsschwacher Schüler besonders hoch ...

„In Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz, Belgien, Dänemark, Finnland, Luxemburg, Slowenien und Schweden ist unter Migranten und deren Nachkommen der Anteil leistungsschwacher Schüler besonders hoch. In diesen Ländern erreichen Schülerinnen und Schüler mit Migrationshintergrund mehr als doppelt so häufig wie Schüler ohne Migrationshintergrund nicht die schulischen Grundkenntnisse.“

OECD, Presseaussendung vom 19. März 2018

 

Academic underperformance among immigrant students ...

„Academic underperformance among immigrant students is particularly critical in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Sweden and Switzerland.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 82“ (März 2018), S. 5

 

Since 2016, Sweden has implemented diagnostic tests on students’ previous schooling ...

„Since 2016, Sweden has implemented a policy whereby diagnostic tests on students’ previous schooling and their level of academic knowledge are conducted within two months of the student’s arrival at school. Subsequently, additional tests are conducted in different school subjects. No more than two months after the student is enrolled in a school, the principal makes a decision regarding his or her grade and placement in either introductory (separate) or regular class.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background“ (2018), S. 272

 

13 Prozent des schwedischen Budgets für Bildung ...

Sweden invests heavily in education, with general government expenditure on education among the highest in the EU.

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), Education and Training Monitor 2017 (2017), S. 18

Österreichs Politik war das Bildungswesen nur 9,6 % des Budgets wert. (Quelle: ibidem, S. 47

 

In Dänemark, Finnland, Island und Schweden gibt die jüngere Altersgruppe tendenziell häufiger an, unter Depressionen zu leiden ...

„In Dänemark, Finnland, Island und Schweden gibt die jüngere Altersgruppe tendenziell häufiger an, unter Depressionen zu leiden, als die ältere, und zwar unabhängig vom Bildungsstand. […] Laut dem OECD-Bericht ‚Fit Mind, Fit Job‘ setzen die meisten psychischen Erkrankungen früh ein, oft vor Erreichen des 14. Lebensjahrs.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 169

 

Abschlussquoten der Sekundarstufe II höchst unterschiedlich ...

„Der Unterschied bei den Erfolgsquoten zwischen Schülern ohne Migrationshintergrund und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund der ersten Generation beträgt in Finnland, den Niederlanden, Norwegen und Schweden mehr als 10 Prozentpunkte – obwohl weniger als 5 Prozent der Anfängerkohorte in Finnland einen Migrationshintergrund der ersten Generation aufweisen.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 192

 

In vielen Ländern zahlen internationale Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich höhere Bildungsgebühren als inländische Bildungsteilnehmer ...

„In vielen Ländern zahlen internationale Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich höhere Bildungsgebühren als inländische Bildungsteilnehmer. Die Differenz ist in Australien und Kanada besonders groß. Hier bezahlen internationale Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich dreimal so viel wie inländische Bildungsteilnehmer, ebenso in Schweden, wo internationale Bildungsteilnehmer jährlich zwischen 9.000 US-Dollar (öffentliche Einrichtungen) und 10.400 US-Dollar (private Einrichtungen) bezahlen, während sich inländische Bildungsteilnehmer kostenlos einschreiben konnen.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 368

 

Bullying in Europe ...

„The prevalence of bullying varies considerably across Europe. Lithuania, Belgium, Estonia, Austria and Latvia are some of the countries with relatively high victimisation rates between around 20 % and 30 %, compared to the lower rates of Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic, Croatia, Italy and Spain below 10 %.“

NESET (Hrsg.), „How to Prevent and Tackle Bullying and School Violence“ (2017), S. 6

 

The learning environment in Swedish classrooms ...

„The learning environment in Swedish classrooms is positive in terms of student-teacher relations, but it could be more conducive to learning. Teachers report low job satisfaction, and fewer teachers than in other OECD countries would choose their profession again.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Sweden“ (2017), S. 4

 

Schweden: There is an effort to make adult education accessible ...

Schweden: „There is an effort to make adult education accessible and, within the public education and training system, it is free of charge for Swedish citizens and some cases of non-Swedish residents (e.g. citizens from the European Union or Switzerland).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Sweden“ (2017), S. 9

 

Migrantenkinder in Schweden und Finnland ...

„Schweden ist nicht nur immer mehr im Niveau gesunken, die Migrantenkinder in Schweden zeigen für 2012 wie die in Finnland niedrigere Leistungen und eine größere Leistungsdifferenz zu den Einheimischen als in Deutschland.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hartmut Esser, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung online am 24. Oktober 2016

 

Schweden: Vordopplung der Sonderklassen für Kinder mit geistiger Behinderung ...

„Im integrationserfahrenen Schweden ist es in den letzten zwanzig Jahren annähernd zu einer Vordopplung der Sonderklassen für Kinder mit geistiger Behinderung gekommen.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Bernd Ahrbeck, „Inklusion“ (2016), S. 123

 

Das sozioökonomische Niveau der Elternhäuser ...

„In den skandinavischen Staaten Finnland, Schweden oder Norwegen sowie der Schweiz oder Kanada liegt der sozioökonomische Status signifikant über dem OECD-Mittelwert.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Kristina Reiss u. a., „PISA 2015. Eine Studie zwischen Kontinuität und Innovation“ (2016), S. 291f

 

Schweden: A school appears more attractive if students perceive that it is easier to make better grades on teacher-grades tests ...

„In Sweden, a country in which education vouchers have been readily available since the early 1990s, it appears that an important means for private schools to attract voucher students involves grade inflation. That is, a school appears more attractive if students perceive that it is easier to make better grades on teacher-grades tests.“

Mercedes Schneider, „School Choice. The End of Public Education?“ (2016), S. 35

 

Vouchersystem findet keine Akzeptanz ...

„Even though vouchers to attend private schools are readily available to all Swedish students, as of 2014, only 14 % of Swedish parents of 15-years-old students elected to use vouchers.“

Mercedes Schneider, „School Choice. The End of Public Education?“ (2016), S. 36

 

Sweden experienced the most rapid decline of all OECD countries ...

„Sweden experienced the most rapid decline of all OECD countries in the performance of 15 year-olds, as measured in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016 – Country analysis“ (2016), S. 278

 

Schweden: General government expenditure on education was among the highest in the EU in 2014 ...

Schweden: „General government expenditure on education was among the highest in the EU in 2014, both as a proportion of GDP (6.6 %) and as a proportion of total general government expenditure (12.7 %).“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016 – Country analysis“ (2016), S. 277

 

Unemployment rate of youth twice as high as adult unemployment in most countries ...

„The unemployment rate of youth (aged 15-24) is twice as high as adult unemployment (25 years+) in most countries. It is nearly 4 times as high in Italy, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Society at a Glance 2016” (2016), S. 92

 

Young migrants in Sweden ...

Schweden: „As few as one in every two of those young migrants who arrive after the start of compulsory school manage to qualify for upper-secondary school and among new arrivals (those who arrived less than four years prior to the end of compulsory school) the figure falls below one in three.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Working Together: Skills and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants and their Children in Sweden“ (2016), S. 90

 

Educational disparity in Sweden between foreign- and native-born individuals ...

„The educational disparity in Sweden between foreign- and native-born individuals is among the largest in the OECD.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Working Together: Skills and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants and their Children in Sweden“ (2016), S. 98

 

Additional language training for illiterate refugees ...

„In Denmark […] illiterate refugees who lack basic skills may receive additional language training, which goes beyond the scope of the official three-year induction programme and lasts for up to five years in total. There are similar arrangements in Norway and Sweden, where training may be extended according to the needs of individual refugees and the capacity of the local authority concerned.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Making Integration Work“ (2016), S. 36

 

Numeracy skills of teachers ...

„In Japan and Finland, for example, the average teacher has better numeracy skills than the average college graduate while in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, the Slovak Republic and Sweden, the reverse is true.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform“ (2016), S. 12

 

The unemployment rate of youth (aged 15-24) ...

„The unemployment rate of youth (aged 15-24) is twice as high as adult unemployment (25 years+) in most countries. It is nearly 4 times as high in Italy, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Society at a Glance 2016” (2016), S. 92

 

One in four young people do not successfully complete upper secondary education by the age of 20 ...

Schweden: „One in four young people do not successfully complete upper secondary education by the age of 20.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016 – Country analysis“ (2016), S. 278

 

The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden ...

„The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children.“

Ylva Bjereld u. a., „Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries“. In: „Child: care, health and development“, 41, 4, 2015, S. 593

 

More responsibility for learning given to the pupil, with negative effects for weak students ...

„More responsibility for learning was given to the pupil at the expense of teacher-led instruction, with negative effects on student outcomes, in particular for weak students.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 18

 

The countries with the lowest rates of current alcohol use ...

„The Nordic countries Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are traditionally among the countries with the lowest rates of current alcohol use. […] Among the countries with the highest rates are Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Hungary, Liechtenstein and Monaco.“

The ESPAD Group (Hrsg.), „ESPAD Report 2015“ (2016), S. 85

 

Tuition fees charged to international students ...

„Since 2005, Denmark, New Zealand and Sweden have implemented reforms that changed the tuition fees charged by public institutions to some of their international students by several thousand dollars.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 335

 

‚Autonomisierung‘ per se keine Verbesserung ...

„Es ist zu betonen, dass die ‚Autonomisierung‘ per se keine Verbesserung verspricht, und dass eine Änderung in dieser Hinsicht im Prinzip große Herausforderungen an alle beteiligten AkteurInnen mit sich bringt. Autonomisierung kann auch gravierend scheitern, wenn sie ohne die nötigen Voraussetzungen zu rasch durchgesetzt wird, wie das Beispiel Schweden deutlich zeigt.“

Dr. Lorenz Lassnigg, „Politics – Policy – Practice. Eckpunkte einer sinnvollen Weiterentwicklung des Schulwesens“ (2015), S. 74

 

The highest public spending on education relative to GDP ...

„The highest public spending on education relative to GDP was observed in Denmark (8.8 % of GDP), while Malta (8.0 %), Cyprus (7.9 %), Sweden, Finland (both 6.8 %) and Belgium (6.6 %) also recorded relatively high proportions.“

Eurostat (Hrsg.), „Key figures on Europe 2015 edition“ (2015), S. 67

 

Attractiveness of the teacher profession declined ...

Schweden: „Over time the attractiveness of the teacher profession declined and teacher education lost popularity. Declining teacher skills and an increasing share of teaching staff without adequate qualifications followed.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 19

 

Decentralised schools and changed curricula and teaching methods accelerated the slide ...

Schweden: „Compulsory school outcomes started to deteriorate already in the 1980s, but a series of reforms in the early 1990s, which decentralised schools and changed curricula and teaching methods seem to have accelerated the slide.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 5

 

Student performance is on the decline throughout the school system ...

Schweden: „Student performance is on the decline throughout the school system, regardless of the type of school (i.e. municipal or independent), socioeconomic status, migrant background or the gender of students.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2015 - Country analysis“ (2015), S. 262

 

Immigrating children ...

Schweden: „74 % of children immigrating less than five years before the end of compulsory school and 48 % of those immigrating after school starts fail to qualify for the national upper secondary programmes.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 22

 

The performance of 15 year-olds in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) ...

Schweden: „The performance of 15 year-olds in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) surveys deteriorated steadily between 2000 and 2012 in all three core subjects measured — mathematics, reading and science. The decline over the past decade has been greater than that of any other country participating in PISA.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2015 - Country analysis“ (2015), S. 262

 

The performance of Swedish 15-year olds in mathematics, literacy and science ...

„The performance of Swedish 15-year olds in mathematics, literacy and science has been steadily declining since the first OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey in 2000.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 5

 

Most rapid decline of all OECD countries in the performance of 15-year olds ...

„Over the past decade Sweden experienced the most rapid decline of all OECD countries in the performance of 15-year olds, as measured in the PISA survey.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 8

 

In Sweden there are stronger persistent barriers to young people ...

In Sweden there are stronger persistent barriers to young people wishing to access the labour market. Almost a quarter of young people in Sweden do not receive proper qualifications, and those that do, are qualified for sectors with little demand for labour.“

Eurofound (Hrsg.), „Social inclusion of young people“ (2015), S. 84

 

25 % of young adults with a tertiary education show lower skills ...

Schweden: „25 % of young adults with a tertiary education show lower skills than the 25 % best performing with only compulsory school degrees.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 11

 

31 % fail to complete their studies ...

Schweden: „Of those who enter upper secondary education […] 31 % fail to complete their studies within the three-year norm, and 23 % within four years.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Economic Surveys – Sweden“ (2015), S. 103

 

Global Educational Reform Movement does not improve students' learning ... ...

„None of the countries that joined (or were infected by) the GERM (Anm.: Global Educational Reform Movement) – the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Netherland, or Sweden – has been able to improve students’ learning as shown in the results of that international survey.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, „Finnish Lessons 2.0“ (2015), S. 151

 

Absturz Schwedens in der letzten PISA-Runde ...

„Wie sich am Absturz Schwedens in der letzten PISA-Runde lernen lässt, verlieren gerade jene, die die Umstellung auf Vermessungsstrategien mit Standardisierung und Konkurrenz am konsequentesten umgesetzt haben, genau gemessen an jenen Parametern, die zu diesen Programmen Anlass gaben.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stefan Hopmann, in „Alois Mock: Visionen im Spiegel der Zeit“ (2014), S. 100

 

Die meisten EU-Staaten und -Regionen bessere Ergebnisse bei PIRLS 2011 als Österreich ...

„Die meisten EU-Staaten und -Regionen, die an PIRLS 2011 teilgenommen haben, hatten im Durchschnitt signifikant bessere Ergebnisse als Österreich: Finnland, Nordirland, Dänemark, Kroatien, Irland, England, die Niederlande, die Tschechische Republik, Schweden, Italien, Deutschland, Portugal und Ungarn.“

Statistik Austria (Hrsg.), „Bildung in Zahlen 2012/13 – Schlüsselindikatoren und Analysen“ (2014), S. 116

 

Denmark and Sweden (as of 2011) decided to introduce tuition fees for international students ...

„During the past decade, Denmark and Sweden (as of 2011) decided to introduce tuition fees for international students to increase the resources available for their tertiary institutions.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators“ (2014), S. 262

 

The number of students in private schools in Sweden increased sharply ...

„The number of students in private schools in Sweden increased sharply over the past decade.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Resources, Policies and Practices in Sweden’s Schooling System“ (2014), S. 14

 

Schweden: Learning hindered by heterogeneous ability levels within the class ...

„Around every second student in Sweden attends a school whose principal reported that learning is at least to some extent hindered by heterogeneous ability levels within the class.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Resources, Policies and Practices in Sweden’s Schooling System“ (2014), S. 18

 

Sweden is not the only Nordic country where results declined ...

„While average performance in mathematics declined by 31 points in Sweden between 2003 and 2012 […], performance in Finland declined by 26 points, in Iceland by 22 points, and in Denmark by 14 points.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Resources, Policies and Practices in Sweden’s Schooling System“ (2014), S. 26

 

The proportion of pupils who lack grades in at least one subject ...

Schweden: „The proportion of pupils who lack grades in at least one subject decreases the higher the education level of the parents. Pupils with university-educated parents had the lowest proportion, 12.7 percent. Among pupils whose parents’ highest education level was upper-secondary school, the proportion was 28.1 percent and for pupils whose parents’ highest education level was compulsory school, it was 56.2 percent.“

Swedish National Agency for Education (Hrsg.), „Facts and figures 2012: Preschool activities, schools and adult education in Sweden“ (2014), S. 26

 

Parents’ level of education and achievement ...

Schweden: „Of the pupils whose parents’ level of education was compulsory school, 14 percent failed to achieve the goals in English while among pupils with at least one parent with university education, it was just over 1 percent. […] Of the pupils whose parents highest education level was compulsory school, 39 percent failed to achieve the goals in mathematics. The corresponding figure for pupils with one parent with university education was 10 percent. […] Among pupils with parents who only have compulsory school education, 7 percent failed to achieve the goals in the subject test in Swedish while among pupils with at least one parent with university education, it was just over 1 percent.“

Swedish National Agency for Education (Hrsg.), „Facts and figures 2012: Preschool activities, schools and adult education in Sweden“ (2014), S. 26f

 

Ability grouping across classes is used relatively often in Sweden ...

„Ability grouping across classes is used relatively often in Sweden: 57 % of students are in schools with one form of grouping used for all classes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Resources, Policies and Practices in Sweden’s Schooling System“ (2014), S. 17

 

Only 30 per cent of Finnish 1 year olds are in enrolled in childcare services ...

„Only 30 per cent of Finnish 1 year olds are in enrolled in childcare services, compared to 49 per cent in Sweden and 71 per cent in Norway. […] 51 per cent of Finnish 2 year olds have a place in municipal childcare services, compared to 89 and 91 per cent in Norway and Sweden, respectively.“

Dr. Anne Lise Ellingsaeter, „Cash for Childcare: Experiences from Finland, Norway and Sweden“ (2014), S. 8

 

Sweden has lost a stunning 33 points on the PISA reading scale since 2000 ...

„Finland has in fact lost 22 points since 2000. This immense loss is only surpassed by Sweden which has lost a stunning 33 points on the PISA reading scale since 2000.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ludger Wößmann, „The Economic Case for Education“ (2014), S. 24

 

Rückstand von Kindern von Migranten/Migrantinnen in Schweden, Belgien, Finnland und Italien ...

PISA: „In Österreich liegen die Schüler/innen mit eingewanderten Eltern im Schnitt um 67 Punkte zurück. [...] Ähnlich stark ist der Rückstand von Kindern von Migranten/Migrantinnen in Schweden, Belgien, Finnland und Italien.“

BIFIE (Hrsg.), „Nationaler Bildungsbericht Österreich 2012“ (2013), Band 1, S. 154

67 PISA-Punkte entsprechen mehr als eineinhalb Lernjahre.

 

Sweden’s rankings have declined over the past ten years ...

„Sweden’s rankings have declined over the past ten years, and the gap between high and low achieving students has increased.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Nina Bascia u.a., „Teacher Union Governmental relations in the context of educational reform“ (2013), S. 15

 

SchulabbrecherInnen in Schweden ...

„Young people feel that the adult world has let them down. Many say that they started to skip class when they were in compulsory school, but that adults turned a blind eye to this and never followed up.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „10 reasons for dropping-out” (2013), S. 8

 

Gründe für Schulabbruch (Erhebung unter SchulabbrecherInnen Schwedens) ...

„Harassment and bullying from peers or personnel in the school are clearly the most common causes, 46 percent cite that as a reason.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „10 reasons for dropping-out” (2013), S. 11

 

Erhebung unter SchulabbrecherInnen Schwedens ...

„The two foremost causes for dropping-out are bullying and insufficient pedagogical support, but young people also mention the work environment and insufficient support after extended absences. Everyone knows that the working environment is important to learning; young people have described a chaotic, boisterous and loud environment where it is impossible to concentrate.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „10 reasons for dropping-out” (2013), S. 30

 

Zwischen 2,3 und 3,1 Prozent der schwedischen Kinder und Jugendlichen im Grundschulalter in gesonderten Lerngruppen ...

Schweden: „[Es] erhalten zwischen 2,3 und 3,1 Prozent der schwedischen Kinder und Jugendlichen im Grundschulalter mindestens die Hälfte ihres Unterrichts in gesonderten Lerngruppen.“

Thomas Barow, „Vorbild oder Zerrbild? Außen- und Innenperspektive auf inklusive Bildung in Schweden“ (2011), S. 4

 

Schweden: The impact of socio-economic background on reading performance has increased ...

Schweden: „The impact of socio-economic background on reading performance has markedly increased and is now above the OECD average.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education – Sweden“ (2011), S. 25

 

In countries such as Greece, France, the Netherlands and Sweden, immigrant children are given the opportunity to attend temporary reception classes ...

„In countries such as Greece, France, the Netherlands and Sweden, immigrant children are given the opportunity to attend temporary reception classes if they do not have the required level of proficiency in the host language to cope successfully in the school system.“

Cedefop (Hrsg.), „Guiding at-risk youth through learning to work: Lessons from across Europe“ (2010), S. 56

 

Apprenticeship schemes have been recently (re)introduced in Denmark, Estonia and Sweden ...

„Apprenticeship schemes have been recently (re)introduced in Denmark, Estonia and Sweden.“

Cedefop (Hrsg.), „Guiding at-risk youth through learning to work: Lessons from across Europe“ (2010), S. 123

 

Schwedens Eltern flüchten ins frei finanzierte Privatschulwesen ...

„In the school year 1990-91, about 0.9 % of all Swedish students in compulsory education (approximately ages 7-16) were enrolled in independent schools, whereas in 2009/10 the figure had grown to about 11 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Country Background Report for Sweden“ (2010), S. 9

 

Schweden: vermehrt homogene Lerngruppen ...

„Students are often dispersed into different classroom groups based on special support needs or attainment levels, resulting in increasingly homogeneous groups.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Country Background Report for Sweden“ (2010), S. 28