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The salary and benefits package for teachers in Shanghai is generous compared with those in other parts of China ...

Shanghai: „The salary and benefits package for teachers in Shanghai is generous compared with those in other parts of China. In fact, it is comparable with those of other professional occupations. Moreover, the salary scale allows high-performing and long-serving teachers to earn significantly more than new teachers. Adequate financing keeps teaching workloads relatively low, giving teachers the time to develop and prepare lesson plans.“

The World Bank (Hrsg.), „Learning to Realize Education's Promise“ (2018), S. 174

 

Kaum Computereinsatz an ostasiatischen Schulen ...

Students in the East Asian countries of BSJG (Anm: die chinesischen Provinzen Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu und Guangdong, die an PISA teilgenommen haben), Japan and Korea reported the lowest use of ICT at school.

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results. Collaborative Problem Solving“ (2017), S. 83

 

Spending many hours on homework and in additional instruction ...

Shanghai, Südkorea, Taiwan: „In these Asian countries/economies, spending many hours on homework and in additional instruction seems to be central to the life of top-performing students.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 76

 

Important for Shanghai to find a healthier balance ...

„It will be increasingly important for Shanghai to find a healthier balance between academic excellence and students’ social and emotional well-being.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 143

 

High level of parental pressure and unhappiness in Shanghai ...

„Students in Shanghai report a high level of parental pressure and unhappiness when compared with their international peers.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 143

 

The average teacher in Shanghai teaches for only 10-12 hours per week ...

„The average teacher in Shanghai teaches for only 10-12 hours per week.“

Dr. Ben Jensen u. a., „Beyond PD: Teacher Professional Learning in High-Performing Systems“ (2016), S. 6

 

Downstream effects of high stakes tests on the lower levels of education in Shanghai ...

Shanghai: „The high stakes zhong kao at the end of ninth grade and the gao kao at high school graduation have tremendous downstream effects on the lower levels of education and continue to influence teaching and learning for testing purposes only.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 82

 

Students in Shanghai report more unhappiness and parental pressure ...

„Students in Shanghai report more unhappiness and parental pressure compared with their international peers.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), Executive Summary, S. XXIV

 

Teachers in China and Shanghai are trained, recruited, and organized by subject ...

Shanghai: „School children, beginning in first grade, are taught by teachers who are trained and recruited by subject. Each key subject teacher is responsible for teaching that subject.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 7

 

Teachers in China and Shanghai are trained, recruited, and organized by subject starting from teachers of first grade ...

„As in many East Asian countries, teachers in China and Shanghai are trained, recruited, and organized by subject starting from teachers of first grade. Each key subject teacher is responsible for teaching his or her subject specialty.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 28

 

The induction-probation program for teachers in Shanghai ...

Shanghai: „The induction-probation program requires teachers to spend 50 percent of their time teaching in the classroom and 50 percent receiving professional development at district teacher training centers where they receive training on ethics, pedagogy, and student activity design.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 29

 

Shanghai teachers generally have a very high level of content knowledge ...

„Shanghai teachers generally have a very high level of content knowledge, especially in the core subject areas of math, Chinese, and English.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 30

 

In Shanghai, schools are not allowed to publish student assessment results to the public ...

„In Shanghai, schools are not allowed to publish student assessment results to the public under 'Regulations on Protection of Minors in Shanghai.' This policy is in place to avoid overemphasis on student scores; eliminate school rankings; and reduce exam pressure on students, teachers, and schools.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 80

83

 

Shanghai has made a deliberate effort to not use student exam results as an explicit mechanism for rewards or sanctions ...

„Shanghai has made a deliberate effort to not use student exam results as an explicit mechanism for rewards or sanctions. This policy seems to be directly opposite of the path taken, for example, in the United States. […] In countries where educational institutions are strong, especially in the training and selection of good teachers, autonomy and accountability in school-based management may not be a necessary condition for success. In these conditions, which are found in many highperforming countries in Europe and East Asia, trust is the main element of accountability.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 81f

 

Classroom assessments take place frequently in Shanghai’s education system ...

„Classroom assessments take place frequently in Shanghai’s education system. Students participate in weekly quizzes, oral tests and presentations, and homework assignments throughout the academic year. In addition to assessments planned by teachers for each individual class of students, students in the same grade regularly participate in common weekly or monthly, midterm, or finalterm paper-based assessments.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 86

47, 83

 

Zhong kao, Shanghais rigorose Prüfung am Übergang von der Sekundarstufe I zur Sekundarstufe II ...

„At the end of lower secondary school (ninth grade), all students must take the Lower Secondary School Graduation Examination in Shanghai. The subjects tested include Chinese, math, English, physics, and chemistry. Physical education, lab operations, and moral ethics of students also factor into students’ final exam scores. The exam serves the dual purposes of selection into high schools and providing information on the overall performance of the basic education system. The total score on the exam determines the type of high school in which students will enroll: admission into highly selective comprehensive schools requires outstanding performance on the exam. […] Because of its primary purpose as a mechanism for selection into high school, the zhong kao has become increasingly high stakes for children in Shanghai. The test ultimately determines in which type of high school ninth-grade graduates can enroll.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S.90f

 

Students undergo intensive preparation for gao kao in Shanghai ...

Shanghai: „Students undergo intensive preparation for gao kao, dedicating the last year of high school almost exclusively to demanding school drills, practice tests, and after-school tutoring sessions.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 94

 

Where students spend 30 hours per week learning at school, and 27 hours after school ...

„In Beijing-Shanghai-Jiangsu-Guangdong (China) students spend 30 hours per week learning at school, and 27 hours after school.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 227

 

Gao Kao, Shanghais rigorose Zentralmatura ...

„Students in Shanghai participate in the national college entrance exams (gao kao). Gao kao is a highly competitive and rigorous exam that students across the nation have to take at the end of high school (twelfth grade) to progress to tertiary education in China.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 92

 

Shanghai one of the most equal education systems among the PISA participants ...

„Shanghai is one of the most equal education systems among the PISA participants. For example, it has the highest proportion of resilient students (19.2 percent), that is, disadvantaged students who perform among the top 25 percent of students across all participating countries and economies after controlling for socioeconomic status.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 102

 

Teachers in Shanghai spend 14 hours per week on actual teaching ...

„On average, teachers in Shanghai report spending 14 hours per week on actual teaching, that is, more than 5 hours less than the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013–14 average of 19.3 hours per week.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 22

 

Bildungsinvestitionen im Vergleich ...

Shanghai: „The city requires that all districts devote no less than 16 percent of their public expenditures to education.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 57

Österreichs Politik investiert 9,8 % aller öffentlichen Ausgaben in Bildung; im OECD-Mittel sind es immerhin 12,5 %.

 

Teaching in Shanghai a socially well regarded and monetarily appealing profession ...

„Teaching in Shanghai is a socially well regarded and monetarily appealing profession, with a proven set of entry requirements. The working conditions, such as infrastructure facilities and student-to-teacher ratio, are attractive, and clear career advancement mechanisms are in place.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 136

 

Je leistungsorientierter ein Schulwesen ist, desto mehr Aufstiegschancen bietet es ...

„Shanghai emerged as one of the most equal education systems among PISA participants, with the highest proportion of disadvantaged students performing among the top 25 percent of students across all participating countries and economies after controlling for socioeconomic status.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 139

 

Special schools for students with hearing, visual, and speech disabilities ...

„Shanghai has special schools for students with hearing, visual, and speech disabilities, as well as schools for mentally challenged children and those with autism.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 62ff

 

Shanghai does not allow migrant children to enroll in public senior secondary schools ...

Shanghai: „The city does not allow migrant children to enroll in its public senior secondary schools, limiting their potential.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), Executive Summary

 

One of the heaviest homework loads ...

„Students in Shanghai are found to have one of the heaviest homework loads as revealed by the student questionnaire on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests, with about 11 hours per week devoted to homework.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 95

Österreich: 4,5 Stunden; OECD-Mittelwert: 4,9 Stunden

 

Shanghai has made an effort not to rank student exam results ...

„One positive observation is that Shanghai has made an effort not to rank or publish individual student exam results or to use exam results as an explicit mechanism for teacher rewards or sanctions.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), Executive Summary

 

Students in Shanghai are found to have one of the heaviest homework loads ...

„Students in Shanghai are found to have one of the heaviest homework loads as revealed by the student questionnaire on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests, with about 11 hours per week devoted to homework.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 95

 

Die PISA-Ergebnisse von Shanghai sind mit die besten ...

„Die PISA-Ergebnisse von Shanghai sind mit die besten. Aber wie zufrieden sind denn die Schüler, die oben auf der Rangliste sind? Chinesische Grundschüler haben weltweit mit die höchste Selbstmordrate, chinesische Studenten mit die höchste Burnout-Rate. Sie sind extrem erfolgreich bei PISA, aber nicht zufrieden mit ihrem Leben.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Klaus Zierer in Nida-Rümelin u. a., „Auf dem Weg in eine neue deutsche Bildungskatastrophe“ (2015), S. 107

 

Heavy emphasis on rote memorisation ...

Shanghai: „The education system here puts a heavy emphasis on rote memorisation, which is great for students' test-taking ability but not for their problem-solving and leadership abilities or their interpersonal skills.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Lao Kaisheng, The Observer vom 22. Februar 2014

 

Across OECD countries, 18 % of students skipped at least one class ...

„Across OECD countries, 18 % of students skipped at least one class and 15% skipped at least an entire day of school without authorisation in the two weeks before the PISA test. […] In most high-performing school systems, such as Hong Kong-China, Japan, Korea and Shanghai-China, virtually no student skips classes or days of school.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 35, Jänner 2014, S. 1f

 

In Shanghai schools, children are geared to an exam-oriented culture ...

„In Shanghai schools, children are geared to an exam-oriented culture and a teaching system that emphasizes memorization and rote learning. They drill a lot and learn basic facts and structures of logic from these repetitive exercises.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. David Kamens, „Globalization and the Emergence of an Audit Culture: PISA and the search for ‘best practices’ and magic bullets“ in Meyer u. a., „PISA, Power und Policy“ (2013), S. 132

 

Korea, Shanghai and Hong Kong have the smallest distance between highest and lowest performing students ...

„Korea, Shanghai and Hong Kong have the smallest distance between highest and lowest performing students.“

IPPR (Hrsg.), „Oceans of Innovation“ (2012), S. 43

 

Shanghai students have the second longest study hours ...

„A China Report 2009 conducted by Peking University shows that Shanghai students have the second longest study hours per day in China, at 13.2 hours, just after Beijing at 14.4 hours.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Charlene Tan, „The culture of education policy making: curriculum reform in Shanghai“ in „Critical Studies in Education“ (2012), 53:2, S. 162

 

Shanghai students enjoy the very best China’s uneven schools can offer ...

„The Shanghai students who triumphed in the tests enjoy the very best China’s uneven schools can offer. Their experience has little in common with those of their peers in rural schools, or the makeshift migrant schools of the big cities, not to mention the armies of teenagers who abandon secondary school in favour of the factory floor.“

Los Angeles Times vom 13. Jänner 2011

 

Typically in a Shanghai classroom, students are fully occupied and fully engaged ...

„Typically in a Shanghai classroom, students are fully occupied and fully engaged. Non-attentive students are not tolerated. […] This is rather different from classrooms in other cultures, where students may not be required to be fully engaged or attentive throughout the entire lesson. Such intense concentration is considered a student’s responsibility in Chinese culture.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education“ (2011), S. 92