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In Korea sind 80 Prozent der Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich an privaten Bildungseinrichtungen eingeschrieben ...

„In Korea […] sind 80 Prozent der Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich an privaten Bildungseinrichtungen eingeschrieben, und mehr als 42 Prozent des Bildungshaushalts stammen aus Bildungsgebühren.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 238

 

Bildungsgebühren in Australien, Japan und Korea ...

„In Australien, Japan und Korea betragen die Bildungsgebühren für einen Bachelor- oder gleichwertigen Bildungsgang in privaten Bildungseinrichtungen mehr als 8.000 US-Dollar gegenüber 4.500 US-Dollar bis 5.300 US-Dollar in öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen. In den Vereinigten Staaten verlangen unabhängige private Bildungseinrichtungen für Bachelor- oder gleichwertige Bildungsgänge mit durchschnittlichen jährlichen Bildungsgebühren von fast 21.200 US-Dollar mehr als das Zweieinhalbfache der durchschnittlichen jährlichen Bildungsgebühren an öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen (rund 8.200 US-Dollar).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 261f

 

In Korea, students start to take additional lessons when they are still very young ...

In Korea, students start to take additional lessons when they are still very young. On average, 15-year-old Korean students who sit the PISA test have already taken 6.4 years of extra courses.

OECD (Hrsg.), PISA 2015. Students Well-Being (2017), S. 77

 

Spending many hours on homework and in additional instruction ...

Shanghai, Südkorea, Taiwan: „In these Asian countries/economies, spending many hours on homework and in additional instruction seems to be central to the life of top-performing students.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 76

 

Prioritising salaries over class size ...

„Japan and Korea, two top performers in PISA, are good examples of countries prioritising salaries over class size. Both countries pay their teachers relatively well and require fewer teaching hours, so that teachers have more time for activities such as preparing lessons, meeting other teachers and tutoring students who are behind.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Indicators in Focus 46“ (Dezember 2016), S. 4

 

Besonders präsent ist Nachhilfeunterricht in der Republik Korea ...

„Besonders präsent ist Nachhilfeunterricht in der Republik Korea, in Singapur und Kasachstan, wo am Ende der Grundschulzeit mehr als die Hälfte der Kinder außerschulischen Nachhilfeunterricht nutzt.“

Dr. Karin Guill u. a., „Außerschulischer Nachhilfeunterricht am Ende der Grundschulzeit“, in Dr. Heike Wendt u. a., „TIMSS 2015. Mathematische und naturwissenschaftliche Kompetenzen von Grundschulkindern in Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich“ (2016), S. 248

In Deutschland sind es 9,6 %; Österreichs Daten fehlen, weil Österreichs Unterrichtsministerin aus TIMSS 2015 ausgestiegen ist.

 

Korean 15-year-olds reported being the unhappiest among all participating countries ...

Südkorea: „Despite being one of the highest performing countries in PISA, 2012 results also showed that Korean 15-year-olds reported being the unhappiest among all participating countries. This unhappiness among Korean children appears to stem from the education system and, more specifically, from the pressure they face to excel academically.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Happy Schools!” (2016), S. 29

 

Resting and playing ...

Südkorea: „Although more than 60 per cent of students reported that they hoped to rest at home after school, in reality less than 6 per cent reported doing so. Similarly, while almost half of the children reported that they hoped to play with friends after school, only around 23 per cent did so in reality.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Happy Schools!” (2016), S. 29

 

Literacy in Korea ...

„Italy (85.4 %), Spain (82.6 %), Korea (79.4 %) and the Netherlands (71.8 %) have an exceptionally high proportion of adults who scored at or below Level 1 in literacy who came from families in which both parents had less than upper secondary level attainment.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Anke Grotlüschen u. a., „Adults with Low Proficiency in Literacy or Numeracy“ (2016), S. 34

 

At least one special school in each province ...

Südkorea: „The Ministry of Education requires that there be at least one special school in each province to serve the estimated 2.4 percent of Korean students who need special education.

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 63

 

80 % of students are enrolled in private institutions ...

„In Korea, for example, 80 % of students are enrolled in private institutions, and more than 40 % of the education budget come from tuition fees.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 213

 

Suicide rates among under 30s ...

„Suicide rates among under 30s are highest in Finland, Japan, Korea and New Zealand, with 15 or more suicides per 100 000 youth.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Society at a Glance 2016” (2016), S. 118

 

Building high-quality teaching forces ...

„Several top-performing countries, such as Finland and Korea, build high-quality teaching forces by recruiting the best high school graduates into education institutions.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“ Nr. 58, Dezember 2015, S. 2

 

Suizid die häufigste Todesursache unter Teenagern ...

„Südkorea ist das einzige OECD-Land, in dem Suizid die häufigste Todesursache unter Teenagern ist.“

Berliner Morgenpost online am 12. Oktober 2015

 

Kinder beginnen bereits in den Grundschulen Universitätseintritt vorzubereiten...

„Das grösste Problem in Korea ist, dass Kinder bereits in den Grundschulen damit beginnen, den Universitätseintritt vorzubereiten. Man klagt viel darüber, dass Kinder zu wenig Zeit zum Spielen haben, aber wegen des Konkurrenzkampfes findet das Thema kaum die nötige Aufmerksamkeit.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Lee-Whan Ahn, Neue Zürcher Zeitung online am 4. Mai 2015

 

A much smaller proportion of Korean 15-year-olds report being happy ...

„Compared to the international average, a much smaller proportion of Korean 15-year-olds report being happy at school and thinking that school can be useful for their job or decision making.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 50

 

Examination hell ...

„OECD data indicate that there are a number of high-achieving nations where many students are not happy with school. These high achievement/low engagement systems include Korea, where students describe their secondary school experience as ‚Examination Hell‘, and Finland.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Scotland“ (2015), S. 121

 

6.7 % of gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions ...

Including funds from both public and private sources, Korea spent 6.7 % of gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary levels, against the OECD and partner countries average of 5.3 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance. Country Note Korea“ (2015), S. 2

Österreich: 4,9 %

 

Contribution from households to financing education in Korea one of the highest among OECD economies ...

„The relative contribution from households to financing education in Korea is one of the highest among OECD economies. High private education spending by households contributes to a low fertility rate as the burden for parents starts when their children are very young and lasts until they find a well-paid job.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 56

 

Meister schools have achieved a 90 % employment rate ...

Südkorea: „Meister schools have achieved a 90 % employment rate, of which 98 % is full-time regular employment.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 110

 

Work-based learning model based on Germany’s apprenticeship system ...

„Korea’s 'work-study dual system', announced on 10 September 2013, is a work-based learning model based on Germany’s apprenticeship system. […] The dual system will reach 10 000 companies and create 70 000 apprentice positions by 2017.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 111

 

The employment rate of university graduates in 2013 ...

Südkorea: „The employment rate of university graduates in 2013 was 56 %. […] For vocational institutions, the employment rate of Meister high-schools in 2013 was over 90%.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 50

 

The literacy proficiency of the top 25 % students ...

Südkorea: „The literacy proficiency of the top 25 % students with tertiary-type A education attainment is among the lowest in the OECD.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 49

 

Anteil der tertiär Ausgebildeten bei den Jüngeren auf 65 Prozent angestiegen ...

„In Korea ist der Anteil der tertiär Ausgebildeten bei den Jüngeren auf 65 Prozent angestiegen, aber jeder dritte Jugendliche in diesem Land, das zu den exportstärksten der Welt gehört, ist arbeitslos.

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Julian Nida-Rümelin in Nida-Rümelin u. a., „Auf dem Weg in eine neue deutsche Bildungskatastrophe“ (2015), S. 39

 

Korea had the highest suicide rate ...

„Korea had the highest suicide rate with nearly 30 deaths per 100 000 population, followed by Japan, Hungary and Slovenia with nearly 20 deaths per 100 000 population. […] Suicide is the number one cause of death among teenagers in Korea.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Health at a Glance 2015“ (2015), S. 56

 

In 2012, only 42 % of students in Korea reported that they use computers ...

„In 2012, only 42 % of students in Korea reported that they use computers at school – the second smallest proportion among the 42 countries/economies surveyed, after Shanghai-China (38 %).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Students, Computers and Learning“ (2015), S. 55

 

NEET is above the OECD average ...

Südkorea: „The share of youth not in employment, education or training (NEET) is above the OECD average and is particularly high among youth with tertiary education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 17

 

Share of NEETs among Korean youth with a tertiary education ...

„The share of NEETs among Korean youth with a tertiary education is almost double the OECD average (24% versus 13%), while the rate among all youth is only moderately above average (19% versus 15%).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 39

 

Across OECD countries, 18 % of students skipped at least one class ...

„Across OECD countries, 18 % of students skipped at least one class and 15% skipped at least an entire day of school without authorisation in the two weeks before the PISA test. […] In most high-performing school systems, such as Hong Kong-China, Japan, Korea and Shanghai-China, virtually no student skips classes or days of school.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 35, Jänner 2014, S. 1f

 

Skipping a day or class in Japan and Korea ...

„Some 7 % of students in Japan and 9 % of students in Korea attend schools where more than 10 % of students skipped a day or a class at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test; by contrast, across OECD countries, an average of 73 % of students attend such schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 35, Jänner 2014, S. 3

 

Teachers in Korea’s primary and secondary schools enjoy high respect ...

„The 419 450 teachers in Korea’s primary and secondary schools (ministry data from 2010) enjoy high respect within society and favourable working conditions. Teaching is one of the most popular career options among graduates.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Teacher Remuneration in Latvia. An OECD Perspective“ (2014), S. 166

 

Teaching profession is valued in society ...

„On TALIS 2013, 66.5 % of lower secondary teachers in Korea agreed that the teaching profession is valued in society. This is one of the highest figures among participating countries and far above the average of 30.9 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Teacher Remuneration in Latvia. An OECD Perspective“ (2014), S. 166

 

Children in Korea are not happy ...

„South Korea was ranked at 64th (Anm.: unter 65 Teilnehmerstaaten) when children were asked how happy they were in school. Other indicators such as suicide rates among children and adolescents have also shown that children in Korea are not happy.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Bong Joo Lee u. a., „Children's Worlds National Report South Korea“ (2014), S. 3

 

Korea is one of the countries where teachers earn more ...

„Korea is one of the countries where teachers earn more than other tertiary-educated workers (comparing the statutory wage scale), with the most favourable ratio of all OECD countries in primary education (1.36 at all education levels, far above the OECD averages), which evidences the importance society places on the teaching profession and contributes to its attractiveness.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Teacher Remuneration in Latvia. An OECD Perspective“ (2014), S. 167

 

The share of GDP devoted to education in 2011...

Südkorea: „The share of GDP devoted to education, 7.6 % in 2011, is among the highest in OECD countries (OECD average of 6.1 %) and increased by 1.5 percentage points between 2000 and 2011.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Teacher Remuneration in Latvia. An OECD Perspective“ (2014), S. 164

 

In Korea, 80.9 % of primary school students receiving supplementary education ...

„In Korea, 80.9 % of primary school students were estimated to be receiving private supplementary education in 2012. In lower secondary school the proportion was 70.6 %; and in upper secondary school it was 50.7 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 89

 

The highest-performing educational systems recruit their teachers from the top ...

"The highest-performing educational systems recruit their teachers from the top third of each cohort of graduates (top 5 % in Korea, 10 % in Finland and 30 % in Singapore and Japan).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „„Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 193

 

Der Schultag dauert acht oder mehr Stunden ...

Südkorea: „Der Schultag dauert acht oder mehr Stunden, nach dem Abendessen geht es mit Nachhilfe weiter. Wenn die Jugendlichen ihre Hausaufgaben gemacht haben, ist es häufig schon 23 Uhr.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Lee Joon-Koo, Die Presse online am 3. Dezember 2013

 

Siebzig Prozent der Kinder in Südkorea erhalten Privatunterricht ...

Südkorea: „Laut der Statistik der Korean National Statistical Office von 2012 erhalten siebzig Prozent der Kinder in Südkorea Privatunterricht.“

Die Zeit ONLNE am 19. November 2013

 

Leistungen der 10-Jährigen ...

Leistungen der 10-Jährigen: „The East Asian countries, including Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong SAR, Chinese Taipei, and Japan excel in mathematics from assessment cycle to assessment cycle, and the Russian Federation and Finland are top performers in reading.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among reading, mathematics, and science achievement at the fourth grade“ (2013), S. 14

 

The educational achievements of Korea ...

„The educational achievements of Korea rest primarily on the intense discipline and work ethic of its students, encouraged and pushed by parents and teachers.“

Dr. Randall S. Jones, „Education Reform in Korea“ (2013), S. 5

 

A large number of children attend private institutions ...

„A large number of children attend private institutions known as hagwons, instead of or in addition to childcare and kindergarten. Hagwons are primarily focused on academics, teaching children particular skills, particularly in foreign languages and mathematics, as well as music and art.“

Dr. Randall S. Jones, „Education Reform in Korea“ (2013), S. 8f

 

More than 70 % of students participating in private tutoring attend hagwons ...

„More than 70 % of students participating in private tutoring attend hagwons, making it the most important player in this sector. It is not uncommon for students to be enrolled in several hagwons focusing on different subject areas.“

Dr. Randall S. Jones, „Education Reform in Korea“ (2013), S. 18

 

Korea currently has nearly 100 thousand hagwons ...

„Korea currently has nearly 100 thousand hagwons, which must receive a permit from the local education government to operate. […] The hagwons have more teachers than the public school system and attract the best ones with higher salaries.“

Dr. Randall S. Jones, „Education Reform in Korea“ (2013), S. 18

 

Admission to prestigious hagwons is challenging ...

„Admission to prestigious hagwons is challenging and depends on entrance exams. […] Only 14 % of applicants for the Daesung Institute are accepted. After one year of study, 70 % gain entrance to one of Korea’s top three universities.“

Dr. Randall S. Jones, „Education Reform in Korea“ (2013), S. 18

 

Korea’s NEET figures are at the top ...

„Korea’s NEET figures are at the top in OECD countries, especially for youth with tertiary education.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Günther Schmid, „Youth Unemployment in Korea: From a German and Transitional Labour Market Point of View“ (2013), Abstract

 

Private expenditure for primary and lower secondary education in Korea ...

„Private expenditure for primary and lower secondary education in Korea accounts for 21.5 % of the total investment, one of the highest proportions among OECD countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 190

In Österreich macht dieser privat finanzierte Anteil 4,5 % aus. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2013“ (2013), S. 206)

 

Participation in private tutoring is the highest among high-achieving students ...

„Participation in private tutoring is the highest among high-achieving students. About 85 percent of students placed higher than the 90th percentile report that they participate in at least one form of private tutoring activities, and this participation rate is twice the rate for students placed lower than the 20th percentile.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ji Yun Lee, „Private Tutoring and its Impact on Students‘ Academic Achievement, Formal Schooling, and Educational Inequality in Korea“ (2013), S. 37

 

Expenditures on private tutoring ...

„Expenditures on private tutoring have been higher than expenditures on formal schooling since 1995.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ji Yun Lee, „Private Tutoring and its Impact on Students‘ Academic Achievement, Formal Schooling, and Educational Inequality in Korea“ (2013), S. 52

 

The curriculum targeting average students does not satisfy others ...

„The curriculum targeting average students does not satisfy others who have different levels of ability. Especially, for high-achieving students with a high probability of taking private tutoring, the curriculum in formal schooling is not challenging and does not satisfy their educational needs.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ji Yun Lee, „Private Tutoring and its Impact on Students‘ Academic Achievement, Formal Schooling, and Educational Inequality in Korea“ (2013), S. 195

 

Die besten Studierenden für den Lehrerberuf durch höheres Gehalt sowie berufliches Ansehen ...

„Im Allgemeinen gewinnen Länder, die in PISA gut abschneiden, die besten Studierenden für den Lehrerberuf, indem sie ihnen ein höheres Gehalt sowie berufliches Ansehen bieten. […] So verdienen beispielsweise Lehrkräfte der Sekundarstufe I in Korea und der Partnervolkswirtschaft Hongkong (China), zwei leistungsstarken Systemen bei der PISA-Lesekompetenzstudie, über das Doppelte des Pro-Kopf-BIP des betreffenden Landes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA im Fokus 13“ (Februar 2012), S. 3

... und damit mehr als Doppelte der Lehrkräfte Österreichs.

 

Students attend hagwon after their regular school hours ...

„Students attend hagwon after their regular school hours for additional training in all subjects including math, writing, music, science, and perhaps the most common, English. […] Sending one’s child to after school activities has become embedded in the Korean culture as a social norm.“

Dr. Thomas M. Anderson u.a., „Education Fever and the East Asian Fertility Puzzle“ (2012), S. 11

 

90 % of elementary students receive shadow education ...

„In the Republic of Korea nearly 90 % of elementary students receive some sort of shadow education; and in Hong Kong, China, about 85 % of senior secondary students do so.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Mark Bray u.a., „Shadow Education“ (2012), Executive Summary