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Shanghai has made a deliberate effort to not use student exam results as an explicit mechanism for rewards or sanctions ...

„Shanghai has made a deliberate effort to not use student exam results as an explicit mechanism for rewards or sanctions. This policy seems to be directly opposite of the path taken, for example, in the United States. […] In countries where educational institutions are strong, especially in the training and selection of good teachers, autonomy and accountability in school-based management may not be a necessary condition for success. In these conditions, which are found in many highperforming countries in Europe and East Asia, trust is the main element of accountability.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 81f