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Südkorea: Englisch im Kindergarten ...

„Koreanische Eltern zahlen bis zu 20 Millionen Won pro Jahr, umgerechnet 15 000 Euro, für einen solchen Kindergartenplatz. Drei- bis viermal mehr als für eine Vorschule, in der nur Koreanisch gesprochen wird. Schon seit 1995 gibt es in Korea Kindergarten-Versionen bekannter Englisch-Sprachtests.“

Süddeutsche Zeitung online am 23. Jänner 2018

 

Fast 40 Prozent der Kinder unter zwei Jahren benutzen bereits Smartphones ...

„Eine Studie aus 2013 zeigt, dass fast 40 Prozent der Kinder unter zwei Jahren bereits Smartphones benutzen — zwei Jahre zuvor waren es noch zehn Prozent.“

www.businessinsider.de am 6. Jänner 2018

 

Die stärksten Ausgabensteigerungen waren seit dem Jahr 2000 bei den Kindertagesheimen zu beobachten ...

„Die stärksten Ausgabensteigerungen waren seit dem Jahr 2000 bei den Kindertagesheimen zu beobachten. Hier sind die Ausgaben um mehr als das Eineinhalbfache gestiegen. […] Im Jahr 2016 wurden 2.472,6 Mio. € für Kindertagesheime verausgabt.“

Statistik Austria (Hrsg.), „Bildung in Zahlen 2016/17. Schlüsselindikatoren und Analysen“ (2018), S. 90f

 

Im Jahr 2015 lag die Teilnahmequote an vorschulischer Bildung in der Altersgruppe der 4-Jährigen in Österreich bei 92,3 % ...

„Im Jahr 2015 lag die Teilnahmequote an vorschulischer Bildung in der Altersgruppe der 4-Jährigen in Österreich bei 92,3 %. […] Der EU22-Durchschnitt für institutionelle Kinderbetreuung bei den 4-Jährigen liegt bei 89,6 %.“

Statistik Austria (Hrsg.), „Bildung in Zahlen 2016/17. Schlüsselindikatoren und Analysen“ (2018), S. 120

 

Estonia is exceptional in terms of the long duration of parental benefits ...

„Estonia is […] exceptional in terms of the long duration of parental benefits, which can be received for a further 435 days, and also at 100 % of the previous wage. […] Estonia has the most generous system of maternity and parental benefits in the OECD in terms of the number of full-weeks’ pay covered.“

James Browne u.a., „Faces of Joblessness in Estonia“ (2018), S. 25

 

Dänemark: A mandatory assessment of language development has been introduced for all three-year-olds ...

Dänemark: „A mandatory assessment of language development has been introduced for all three-year-olds since 2010 in order to diagnose and address possible language problems before children start school at age 7.“

Dr. John Jerrim u. a., „Educational disadvantage: how does England compare?“ (2018), S. 25

 

Macao und Japan: Systems where advantaged and disadvantaged children are equally likely to attend high quality early years settings ...

Macao und Japan: „The impact of high quality early years provision is well proven, with the greatest impact being for children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Yet, in many systems around the world, children from disadvantaged homes are the least likely to engage in such provision, due to issues of funding and access. By contrast, Macao and Japan – two of the high performing, high equity systems listed above – stand out as systems where advantaged and disadvantaged children are equally likely to attend high quality early years settings.“

Dr. John Jerrim u. a., „Educational disadvantage: how does England compare?“ (2018), S. 25

 

Children whose parents were born outside of the EU were six times less likely to attend preschool ...

„In 2011, children whose parents were born outside of the EU were six times less likely to attend preschool than children whose parents were born in Austria (13 % and 79 % respectively).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 12

 

Niederlande: The government launched policy arrangements for VVE (preschool and early school education, Voor- en vroegschoolse educatie) ...

Niederlande: „With the aim to reduce Dutch language deficits from 2000 onwards, the government launched policy arrangements for VVE (preschool and early school education, Voor- en vroegschoolse educatie). VVE policies especially target children of immigrants from disadvantaged families. The emphasis on second language learning at a young age has been embraced by all Dutch governments in power over the past two decades.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 101

 

Niederlande: In the cities, children of immigrants are placed together in preschool, separately from children of Dutch descent whose first language is Dutch ...

Niederlande: „The general policy is that children of immigrants and children of disadvantaged families attend a separate provision called voorschool three half-days a week (between 10 and 12 hours in total). With few exceptions, in practice this means that in the cities, children of immigrants are placed together in preschool, separately from children of Dutch descent whose first language is Dutch. […] In the voorschool, the preschool especially designed for children from disadvantaged families, much attention is paid to second language learning using specialised methods.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 102

 

Gaps in children’s readiness to learn manifest themselves early ...

„Gaps in children’s readiness to learn manifest themselves early. If unaddressed, they can affect children’s cognitive and noncognitive skills over the long term.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 20

 

PISA results suggest that the countries with low early reading ability also have low functional literacy ...

„PISA results suggest that the countries with low early reading ability also have low functional literacy (conceptualized as the inability to comprehend the main message in grade-appropriate texts in late primary school). If students do not learn to read fluently in the early grades, there is little hope that they will develop the skills to succeed on tests like PISA or, more important, in a professional workplace.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 21

 

If children enter primary school without the requisite language skills, they will quickly fall behind ...

„If children enter primary school without the requisite language skills, such as recognizing sounds and letters, they will quickly fall behind, leading to life-long gaps in achievement. Unfamiliarity with numbers can cause primary school students to fall behind in their first year of primary school, with a magnifying effect as they progress through grades.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 166

 

In Singapore, students take screening tests at the beginning of grade 1 ...

„In Singapore, students take screening tests at the beginning of grade 1, and those who are behind in reading receive additional support daily.“

The World Bank (Hrsg.), „Learning to Realize Education's Promise“ (2018), S. 134

 

Machen sich Kindergartenkinder beim gemeinsamen Lesen mit Buchstaben vertraut, profitieren sie davon langfristig ...

„Machen sich Kindergartenkinder beim gemeinsamen Lesen mit Buchstaben vertraut, profitieren sie davon langfristig. Sie lernen auf diese Weise die Rolle von Buchstaben, was als wichtige Voraussetzung zum späteren Lesen- und Schreibenlernen gesehen wird, wie Psychologen der Technischen Universität Kaiserslautern im Fachmagazin «Frontiers in Psychology» berichten.“

www.news4teachers.de am 23. März 2017

 

Emotionale Kontrolle, Sozialverhalten und sprachliche sowie rechnerische Fähigkeiten in den ersten drei Jahren ...

„Forschungen in der Neurowissenschaft haben offen gelegt, dass die Empfindlichkeit wichtiger Areale im Gehirn, wie Bereiche der emotionalen Kontrolle, Sozialverhalten und sprachliche sowie rechnerische Fähigkeiten in den ersten drei Jahren ihren Höhepunkt erreichen.“

Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln (Hrsg.), „Bildungsmonitor 2017“ (2017), S. 37

 

Unterschiedliche Wirkung je nach Dauer einer Bildungsbeteiligung am Elementarbereich ...

PISA: „Schüler, die angaben, dass sie über einen Zeitraum von 2 bis 3 Jahren an Angeboten des Elementarbereichs teilgenommen hatten, schnitten selbst unter Berücksichtigung des sozioökonomischen Hintergrunds besser ab als Kinder, die nur über einen Zeitraum von 1 bis 2 Jahren teilgenommen hatten. Dieser Effekt ist jedoch bei einem Vergleich der Ergebnisse von Kindern mit einer Bildungsbeteiligung am Elementarbereich von 3 bis 4 Jahren und von 2 bis 3 Jahren nicht zu beobachten.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 326

 

Sprachstandsfeststellung 2015/16 ...

„Von jenen Kindern, für die Deutsch als Erstsprache angegeben wurde, hatten nur rund 14 % Förderbedarf. Unter jenen Kindern, für die eine andere Erstsprache angegeben wurde, benötigten hingegen rund 67 % zusätzliche Fördermaßnahmen.“

ÖIF (Hrsg.), „migration & integration. zahlen.daten.indikatoren“ (2017), S. 44

 

2015: Fast ein Drittel der Kinder in Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen aus nichtdeutschsprachigen Familien ...

„2015 stammte fast ein Drittel (31 %) der Kinder in Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen aus nichtdeutschsprachigen Familien.“

ÖIF (Hrsg.), „Kinder & Jugend. Statistiken zu Migration & Integartion 2016“ (2017), S. 8

 

Die bedeutende Rolle der sprachlichen Kompetenzen für das Fach Mathematik ...

„Für das Fach Mathematik beispielsweise konnte die bedeutende Rolle der sprachlichen Kompetenzen in verschiedenen Längsschnittstudien gezeigt werden. So zeigte sich etwa, dass bereits die sprachlichen Kompetenzen von 7-jährigen Kindern eine Vorhersage der Schulnoten erlauben, die sie drei Jahre später erhalten – und zwar nicht nur im Fach Deutsch, sondern auch in Mathematik und Sachkunde.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Miriam Vock u. a., „Umgang mit Heterogenität in Schule und Unterricht“ (2017), S. 21

 

Viel höherer Förderbedarf für Kinder mit nicht-deutscher Muttersprache ...

„Die 2008 durchgeführte Sprachstandsbeobachtung bei 4½- bis 5½-Jährigen Kindern ergab für Kinder mit nicht-deutscher Muttersprache einen viel höheren Förderbedarf (58 %) als bei deutschsprachigen Kindern (10 %).“

Migrationsrat für Österreich (Hrsg.), „Bericht des Migrationsrats“ (2017), S. 37

 

Eine gute Ausbildung braucht ein gutes Fundament ...

„Eine gute Ausbildung braucht ein gutes Fundament. Daher muss Bildung bereits im Elementarbereich beginnen. Dies gilt umso mehr für die sozioökonomisch schwächsten Glieder der Gesellschaft. Vorschulische Sprachförderung in Deutsch hilft Befähigungsunterschiede aufgrund der Herkunft auszugleichen.“

Migrationsrat für Österreich (Hrsg.), „Bericht des Migrationsrats“ (2017), Einlage „Bildung und Forschung“

 

The likelihood of low performance in mathematics for a student with no pre-primary education is almost double ...

„Even after controlling for other student characteristics such as socio-economic status, gender, immigrant background, language spoken at home, family structure, location of student’s school (rural area, town or city), grade repetition and programme orientation (vocational or general), the likelihood of low performance in mathematics for a student with no pre-primary education is almost double (1.9 times) that of a student who attended more than a year of pre-primary education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 55

 

Singapur: Learning Support for Maths ...

„Singaporean schools offer a programme called Learning Support for Maths (LSM), for students who do not have the basic numeracy skills and knowledge needed to follow the mathematics curriculum at school. Selected students who are identified through a diagnostic test at the beginning of the first grade have extra classes with a specialist teacher for four to eight sessions per week.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 85

 

Good readers have home environments that support literacy learning ...

„Parents are students’ first teachers, and 39 percent of the students had parents who reported often engaging their children in early literacy activities such as reading, talking, or singing to them as well as telling them stories and teaching them to write alphabet letters. These students had higher reading achievement than students whose parents engaged them less frequently in early literacy activities.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „PIRLS 2016. International Results in Reading“ (2017), Einleitung S. X

 

Students whose parents reported a greater enjoyment of reading ...

„Students whose parents reported a greater enjoyment of reading had higher achievement than students with parents who liked reading less or disliked reading.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „PIRLS 2016. International Results in Reading“ (2017), S. 145

 

By the age of three, children with high SES (Anm.: SES = Socioeconomic status) know many more words than children with low SES ...

„By the age of three, children with high SES (Anm.: SES = Socioeconomic status) know many more words than children with low SES. […] Three-year-old children from low SES families may hear up to 30 million fewer words than their high SES counterparts. They also found that 86-98 % of the words used by three-year-old children were derived from their parents’ vocabularies.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 63

 

The gap in mathematics performance among children from different backgrounds appears at as early as 3 years old ...

„Studies indicate that the gap in mathematics performance among children from different backgrounds appears at as early as 3 years old. Evidence shows that children from disadvantaged backgrounds can keep pace with their peers if they receive targeted intervention early on numeracy.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 67

 

Positive relationship between early literacy activities at home and reading performance at the age of ten ...

„The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) has demonstrated a positive relationship between early literacy activities at home and reading performance at the age of ten. The study found that children whose parents read, sang and played with alphabet toys with them on a daily basis had much higher reading performances than their peers who had minimum parental engagement in reading.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 69

 

Reading stories to younger children has been shown to encourage and improve literacy development ...

„Reading stories to younger children has been shown to encourage and improve literacy development. Fifteen-year-olds who reported their experience in daily interacting with their parents through reading, singing or playing word games when they were of pre-primary school age scored higher on the PISA reading test on average across OECD countries than their peers who did not have such experiences“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 93

 

Early childhood and primary education play an essential role in tackling inequalities ...

„Early childhood and primary education play an essential role in tackling inequalities and raising proficiency in basic competences.“

Eurostat (Hrsg.), „Eurostat regional yearbook 2017“ (2017), S. 76

 

The first years of a person’s life matter tremendously ...

„The first years of a person’s life matter tremendously as they lay the foundations for future skill development and positive adult outcomes. Parents play a central nurturing and educational role in their children’s lives, particularly in early childhood.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Netherlands 2017“ (2017), S. 69

 

By the age of 3, children from low-income homes hear 30 million less words than children from more affluent families ...

„Research confirms that by the age of 3, children from low-income homes hear 30 million less words than children from more affluent families. Research has even revealed that the gap begins as early as 18 months of age.“

Sophia Shing u. a., „Mobile Technology Bridges the 30 Million Word Gap“. In: „Journal of Education at Practice“, Vol. 8, Nr. 9, 2017, S. 64

 

Brain sensitivity peaks in the first three years of life ...

„Research in neuroscience shows that the brain sensitivity of highly important developmental areas – such as language and numeracy, social skills and emotional control – peaks in the first three years of life.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Starting Strong V“ (2017), S. 18

 

Children who enter school at higher levels of readiness ...

„Children who enter school at higher levels of readiness have higher earnings throughout their lives. They are also healthier and less likely to become involved with the criminal justice system.“

Sophia Shing u. a., „Mobile Technology Bridges the 30 Million Word Gap“. In: „Journal of Education at Practice“, Vo8, Nr. 9, 2017, S. 64

 

Bis zum Schuleintritt Unterschied von 30 Millionen gehörten Wörtern bei Kindern aus bildungsnahen Milieus im Vergleich zu Kindern aus bildungsfernen Milieus ...

„Aus Studien ist […] bekannt, dass wir bis zum Schuleintritt mit einem Unterschied von 30 Millionen gehörten Wörtern bei Kindern aus bildungsnahen Milieus im Vergleich zu Kindern aus bildungsfernen Milieus haben. Allein dadurch […], dass Eltern einen anderen Bildungsabschluss haben, sprechen sie mehr mit ihren Kindern, und die wiederum bekommen eine größere Variante von Wörtern mit. Dass der Bildungserfolg vom sozioökonomischen Status der Eltern abhängt, ist somit Naturgesetz.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Klaus Zierer, in Hanns Seidel Stifung (Hrsg.), „Akademikerschwemme versus Fachkräftemangel“ (2016), S. 101f

 

Frühkindliche Bildung von herausragender Bedeutung ...

„Viele Studien zeigen, dass die frühkindliche Bildung eine herausragende Bedeutung für spätere Bildungsperspektiven hat. Kinder aus Familien mit einem niedrigen sozio-ökonomischen Status oder mit Migrationshintergrund profitieren dabei in besonderem Maße von vorschulischer Bildung.“

Dr. Christina Anger u. a., „Bildungsgerechtigkeit in Deutschland - Eine Analyse der Entwicklung seit dem Jahr 2000“ (2016), S. 32

 

Wichtige Bedeutung frühkindlicher Sprachförderung ...

„Zwischen dem Lebensalter und der Fähigkeit, eine Sprache zu erlernen, besteht in der Regel ein negativer Zusammenhang. Entsprechend wichtig – und politisch anerkannt – ist die Bedeutung frühkindlicher Sprachförderung. Eine Schlüsselrolle nimmt dabei der Kindergarten ein.“

Sachverständigenrat deutscher Stiftungen (Hrsg.), „Fünf Jahre Integrationspolitik in Österreich“ (2016), S. 10

 

Children’s language and literacy competence does not begin when children enter school ...

Childrens literacy learning starts well before formal schooling, and studies have shown that children are sensitive to speech even prenatally. Parents and primary caregivers [] are highly influential in a childs early learning as parent-child interactions are frequent and ongoing. Indeed, research shows that the home literacy environment (HLE) is the context in which children first acquire the language and literacy skills that equip them to make sense of, describe, and participate in the world.

Dr. Frank Niklas u. a., The Sooner, the Better: Early Reading to Children (2016), S. 1

 

Reading to children is a core element ...

The multifaceted HLE (Anm.: home literacy environment) incorporates various literacyrelated activities such as parental reading behavior, library visits, teaching of letters and sounds, and owning books at home. However, reading to children is a core element of the HLE.

Dr. Frank Niklas u. a., The Sooner, the Better: Early Reading to Children (2016), S. 1f

 

Reading aloud to a child before the child reaches the age of six months appears to be advantageous ...

Although it is unlikely to make much difference whether parents start reading to children at the age of two or four months, our findings indicate that reading aloud to a child before the child reaches the age of six months appears to be advantageous to the childs linguistic development. Research shows that children are sensitive to language even prenatally, yet in the first few months after a child is born, general language experiences are more likely to make a difference than reading aloud.

Dr. Frank Niklas u. a., The Sooner, the Better: Early Reading to Children (2016), S. 8

 

Dialogic reading strategies have been shown to support children’s literacy learning ...

„In addition to the frequency the child is read to at home, the onset of reading, and the quality of the book reading itself also matter. For instance, dialogic reading strategies have been shown to support children’s literacy learning: the reader interacts with the child, asks questions, points out words and sounds, encourages remarks given by the child, and expands on the text.“

Dr. Frank Niklas u. a., „Intervention in the home literacy environment and kindergarten children’s vocabulary and phonological awareness“. In: „First Language“ (2017), Vol. 37(5), S. 434

 

Nurturing early childhood care and education are fundamental ...

„Nurturing early childhood care and education are fundamental to quality basic education and serve as a foundation for equity. Significant disparities in early learning experiences for low-income children can set the stage for achievement gaps that persist through years of school and lead to a lifetime of missed opportunities, inequities, and even health challenges. Increasing access to quality early childhood care and education is considered an effective “equalizer”

Gillian Huebner u. a., „Beyond Survival: The Case for Investing in Young Children Globally“ (2016), S. 14

 

The returns on investments in early childhood care and education are highest among poorer children ...

„Studies show that the returns on investments in early childhood care and education are highest among poorer children, for whom these programs may serve as a stepping stone out of poverty or exclusion.“

Gillian Huebner u. a., „Beyond Survival: The Case for Investing in Young Children Globally“ (2016), S. 14

 

Parents with higher education tend to interact more verbally with their child ...

„Parents with higher education tend to interact more verbally with their child; they use more abstract words, more complex syntax and invite their child more often into decontextualized discourse, book-sharing and dialogical reading. Such language practices mirror the language of books and school and foster good literacy skills.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Kajsa Yang Hansen u. a., „Determinants of country differences in effects of parental education on children’s academic achievement“ (2016), S. 3

 

Immigrant students who reported that they had attended pre-primary education programmes ...

„Immigrant students who reported that they had attended pre-primary education programmes score 49 points higher on the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) reading test than immigrant students who reported that they had not participated in such programmes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 29

49 PISA-Punkte entsprechen einem Lernvorsprung von etwa eineinviertel Jahren!

 

Long before a child enters the classroom ...

„Long before a child enters the classroom, inequities can create a lasting imprint on the architecture of the brain. […] In the first few years of life, a child’s brain creates 700 to 1,000 new neural connections every second, a pace that later diminishes.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „A fair chance for every child“ (2016), S. 50

 

Conversation, repeating and connecting words in meaningful contexts ...

„Conversation, repeating and connecting words in meaningful contexts, and early exposure to literacy through reading and play are all positively associated with language skills.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „A fair chance for every child“ (2016), S. 50

 

Negative experiences in a child’s life ...

„Negative experiences in a child’s life often manifest themselves later as difficulties with learning, emotional development and management of anxieties.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „A fair chance for every child“ (2016), S. 50

 

Participation in early childhood education and care in Finland ...

Finnland: „Participation in early childhood education and care in Finland has traditionally been lower than in other EU countries.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016 – Country analysis“ (2016), S. 90

 

Entering kindergarten with some rudimentary academic skills ...

„Entering kindergarten with some rudimentary academic skills (e.g. reading or identifying most part of letters) is a good predictor of early literacy and reading comprehension.“

Dr. Tommaso Agasisti u. a., „The determinants of repetition rates in Europe“. In: „Journal of Policy Modeling“ (2016), S. 4

 

The probability of repeating one or more years ...

„The probability of repeating one or more years is connected with academic skills acquired before starting primary school level.“

Dr. Tommaso Agasisti u. a., „The determinants of repetition rates in Europe“. In: „Journal of Policy Modeling“ (2016), S. 15

 

Measures to support the acquisition of Dutch in Belgium ...

„In Belgium (Flemish Community), ECEC centres for children younger than 3 years must provide a language policy that covers measures to support the acquisition of Dutch and devotes attention to languages spoken at home.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Structural Indicators for Monitoring Education and Training Systems in Europe – 2016“ (2016), S. 23

 

Turkish children are forbidden to speak their mother tongue in Flemish schools ...

„In Flanders (Belgium), Turkish children are forbidden to speak their mother tongue, and punished for speaking Turkish with their peers; this is a common practice in many Flemish schools.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Orhan Agirdag u. a., „Does more exposure to the language of instruction lead to higher academic achievement?“ in „International Journal of Bilingualism“ (2016), S. 3

 

Inequalities already present when students enter formal schooling ...

„Many of the inequalities observed in school systems are already present when students first enter formal schooling and persist as students progress through education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 218

 

Enrollment level of children from low-income families in Estonia and Denmark ...

„In Estonia and Denmark the enrollment level of children from low-income families exceeds the enrollment level of children in the total population.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „Early Childhood Policies and Systems in Eight Countries“ (2016), S. 66ff

 

Speech and language therapists and 'special' pedagogues in Estonia ...

„In Estonia, there is a particular focus on early intervention for children whose home language differs from the national language. It is reported that, in 50 % of ECE settings, specialist professional staff are provided to support the targeted groups with speech and language therapists and 'special' pedagogues.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „Early Childhood Policies and Systems in Eight Countries“ (2016), S. 79

 

Evidence from neurobiology ...

„A growing body of evidence from neurobiology, developmental psychology and economics emphasises the early years of childhood as a cornerstone for later outcomes. The experiences and environment in the first three to five years of a child’s life are critical in shaping the brain architecture that underpins future development.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Poverty and Children’s Cognitive Trajectories: Evidence from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study“ (2016), S. 8

 

Publicly-funded universal ECE (Anm.: Early Childhood Education) in Denmark ...

„In Denmark and Estonia, where there is publicly-funded universal ECE (Anm.: Early Childhood Education), the enrollment level of these children is very high: in Denmark, 91 % for ECED (Anm.: Early Childhood Education für die ersten drei Lebensjahre) and 97 % for PPE (Anm.: Pre-Primary education zwischen dem 3. Geburtstag und dem Schuleintritt) and, in Estonia, 100 % for both.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „Early Childhood Policies and Systems in Eight Countries“ (2016), S. 68

 

Developmental delays at the age of 9 months ...

„Our tests show that developmental delays at the age of 9 months (especially in gross motor function) are significantly correlated with SEN (Anm.: SEN = special educational needs) status at age 7.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Poverty and Children’s Cognitive Trajectories: Evidence from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study“ (2016), S. 17

 

The "winning formula" consists of combining education ...

„The "winning formula" consists of combining education of the young child in a formal setting with support for parents.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „Early Childhood Policies and Systems in Eight Countries“ (2016), S. 115

 

Reading for pleasure and reading enjoyment are widely viewed as prerequisites to reading achievement and other academic and nonacademic outcomes ...

„Reading for pleasure and reading enjoyment are widely viewed as prerequisites to reading achievement and other academic and nonacademic outcomes, such as achievement in other subjects, better communication skills, reduced depressive symptoms, and increased creativity. With all of these reported benefits, especially those related to academic achievement, a focus of education policy has routinely been to find ways to motivate children to read from an early age.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „Policy Brief 9“ (Dezember 2015), S. 2

 

Parents’ enjoyment of reading and their reading for pleasure are related to children’s motivation to read ...

„From an early age, a significant contributor to children’s motivation to read and reading achievement is their parents’ attitudes and behaviors toward reading. For example, studies have shown that parents’ enjoyment of reading and their reading for pleasure are related to children’s motivation to read, children’s own recreational reading, and children’s reading achievement.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „Policy Brief 9“ (Dezember 2015), S. 2

 

Mittelschichtseltern sprechen mehr mit ihren Kindern ...

„Mittelschichtseltern sprechen mehr mit ihren Kindern als Unterschichtseltern – und sie sprechen auf andere Weise mit ihnen. Eine ‚Wortlücke‘ von 30 Millionen Worten, die zu einem Vierjährigen aus prekären Verhältnissen nicht gesagt wurden, ermittelten die Kinderpsychologen Betty Hart und Todd Risley von der Universität Kansas in den 80er-Jahren.“

Die Welt online am 7. April 2015

 

Frequent readers ages 6 to 10 were read aloud to ...

Kids & Family Reading Report 2015: „According to the report, 41 percent of frequent readers ages 6 to 10 were read aloud to at home, while only 13 percent of infrequent readers were being read to.“

New York Times online am 8. Jänner 2015

 

Die Chance der ersten Lebensjahre ...

„Zusammenfassend lässt sich sagen, dass anregungsreichere familiäre Lernumwelten, in denen z. B. häufiger vorgelesen und gelesen, Lesen und Schreiben gelehrt und eher weniger ferngesehen wird und die auch eine größere Bücher- und Kinderbücheranzahl aufweisen, zu besseren schriftsprachlichen Leistungen bei den in diesen Lernumwelten lebenden Kindern beitragen.“

Dr. Frank Niklas, „Die familiäre Lernumwelt und ihre Bedeutung für die kindliche Kompetenzentwicklung“. In: „Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht“, 2015, 62, S. 114f

 

Bessere Leistungen im Bereich Lesekompetenz durch vorschulische Bildung ...

„Unter Kindern mit vergleichbarem sozioökonomischem Hintergrund erzielen jene, die in ihrem gegenwärtigen Aufenthaltsland im OECD-Raum an vorschulischer Bildung teilgenommen haben, im Alter von 15 Jahren bessere Leistungen im Bereich Lesekompetenz als Kinder ohne eine entsprechende Vorschulbildung. Der Leistungsabstand zwischen diesen beiden Gruppen beträgt 75 Punkte, was ungefähr zwei Schuljahren entspricht.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Integration von Zuwanderern: Indikatoren 2015“ (2015), S. 246

 

Das Vorschulalter ...

„Das Vorschulalter ist auch die Zeit, in der Kinder am ehesten Strategien lernen, die ihnen helfen können, Stress zu bewältigen und kognitive Kompetenzen zu entwickeln, die für den schulischen Erfolg unerlässlich sind.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Walter Mischel, „Der Marshmallow Test. Willensstärke, Belohnungsaufschub und die Entwicklung der Persönlichkeit“ (2015), S. 316

 

Bereits im Alter von vier Jahren besuchen 98 Prozent aller Kinder eine Grundschule in den Niederlanden ...

Niederlande: „Bereits im Alter von vier Jahren besuchen 98 Prozent aller Kinder eine Grundschule, in der sie schrittweise und meist spielerisch an Buchstaben, Zahlen und andere grundlegende Unterrichtsinhalte herangeführt werden.“

Sachverständigenrat deutscher Stiftungen für Integration und Migration (Hrsg.), „Unter Einwanderungsländern: Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich“ (2015), S. 85

 

When preschool-age children are exposed to book reading ...

„When preschool-age children are exposed to book reading, they develop the understanding of vocabulary that is not commonly used in daily oral interactions. This oral comprehension will assist them in comprehending what they will read by themselves later. […] When parents engage in shared reading with their kindergarten children, they informally teach them vocabulary words because interactions during storybook reading revolve around discussing the meaning of print. […] Reading frequently to preschool children in the home, in particular, can contribute to give them the skills they need to be successful in school.“

Dr. Luisa Araújo u. a., „Home book reading and reading achievement in EU countries“. In: „Educational Research and Evaluation“, 2015, Vol. 21, S. 424

 

Interaktives Vorlesen ...

„More than twice as many mothers with a university degree read aloud to their children than mothers who do not complete secondary education. Moreover, the former have been found to read to their children using an interactive style that involves the children in the reading, and they also ask more “why” questions.“

Dr. Luisa Araújo u. a., „Home book reading and reading achievement in EU countries“. In: „Educational Research and Evaluation“, 2015, Vol. 21, S. 425

 

Parents with a high education level report that they read to their children more often ...

„In all countries, parents with a high education level report that they read to their children more often than parents from a low education level.“

Dr. Luisa Araújo u. a., „Home book reading and reading achievement in EU countries“. In: „Educational Research and Evaluation“, 2015, Vol. 21, S. 427

 

Shared book reading ...

„This analysis for European countries suggests that high frequency of shared book reading before the beginning of primary education is related to higher student achievement, both for children from high and from low parental education backgrounds.“

Dr. Luisa Araújo u. a., „Home book reading and reading achievement in EU countries“. In: „Educational Research and Evaluation“, 2015, Vol. 21, S. 431

 

Interactive reading reduces children’s risk of school failure ...

„Several home intervention studies have shown that programmes that teach parents dialogic reading strategies reduce the literacy underachieving of children from low-SES backgrounds. Interactive reading that encourages a dialogue whereby children are prompted to respond to the information presented and the adult expands and rephrases what the child has said has been shown to reduce children’s risk of school failure.“

Dr. Luisa Araújo u. a., „Home book reading and reading achievement in EU countries“. In: „Educational Research and Evaluation“, 2015, Vol. 21, S. 431

 

Ability gaps across individuals and between socio-economic groups open up at early ages ...

„Ability gaps across individuals and between socio-economic groups open up at early ages, for both cognitive and socio-emotional skills. Cognitive abilities become stable around the age of ten, suggesting that environmental conditions below this age are important and that early policy interventions pay off more than later interventions.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Giorgio Brunello, „Books are Forever: Early Life Conditions, Education and Lifetime Earnings in Europe“. In: „The Economic Journal“ 127 (2015), S. 287

 

30 Prozent der Kinder wurde nicht einmal einmal in der Woche vorgelesen ...

„30 Prozent der Kinder wurde, als sie noch klein waren und noch nicht lesen konnten, von ihren Eltern nicht einmal „einmal in der Woche“ vorgelesen, der Hälfte von ihnen sogar „nie“.

Stiftung Lesen (Hrsg.), „Vorlesen – Investition in Mitgefühl und solidarisches Handeln“ (2015), S. 10

 

Kinder kommen mit Erfahrungs- und Entwicklungsunterschieden ...

„Kinder kommen mit Erfahrungs- und Entwicklungsunterschieden von drei bis vier Jahren in die Schule. Was kann da ein gleicher Unterricht für alle bewirken, wie er heute noch in vielen Schulen üblich ist – und durch die Standardisierung eher wieder zunehmen wird?“ Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Brügelmann, „Vermessene Schulen – standardisierte Schüler“ (2015), S. 49

 

Kinder, denen täglich vorgelesen wurde ...

„86 Prozent der Kinder, denen täglich vorgelesen wurde, meinen, dass sie sich schnell Dinge merken können – aber nur 45 Prozent derjenigen, denen selten bzw. nie vorgelesen wurde.“

Stiftung Lesen (Hrsg.), „Vorlesen – Investition in Mitgefühl und solidarisches Handeln“ (2015), S. 20

 

Vorlesen leistet wichtigen Beitrag zur emotionalen Stärke ...

„Vorlesen leistet einen wichtigen Beitrag zur emotionalen Stärke und zur sozialen Kompetenz. 90 Prozent der Kinder, denen täglich vorgelesen wurde, nehmen sich als Vertrauenspersonen ihrer Mitschüler/innen wahr, aber nur 51 Prozent derjenigen, denen selten oder nie vorgelesen wurde.“

Stiftung Lesen (Hrsg.), „Vorlesen – Investition in Mitgefühl und solidarisches Handeln“ (2015), S. 29

 

Positiver Zusammenhang zwischen dem Vorlesen und der persönlichen Entwicklung von Kindern ...

„Zwischen dem Vorlesen in der Familie und der persönlichen Entwicklung von Kindern sowie ihrem (pro-) sozialen Verhalten besteht ein enger positiver Zusammenhang. Kinder, deren Eltern ihnen vorgelesen haben, besitzen besonders gute Voraussetzungen für Bildungsfähigkeit und gute kognitive Leistungen.“

Stiftung Lesen (Hrsg.), „Vorlesen – Investition in Mitgefühl und solidarisches Handeln“ (2015), S. 37

 

Vorlesen stärkt Kinder in ihrer persönlichen Entwicklung ...

„Vorlesen stärkt Kinder in ihrer persönlichen Entwicklung. 93 Prozent der Kinder, denen täglich vorgelesen wurde, werden als fröhlich beschrieben, 75 Prozent als selbstbewusst. Dies gilt für Kinder, denen selten oder nie vorgelesen wurde, nur in 59 bzw. 44 Prozent der Fälle.“

Stiftung Lesen (Hrsg.), „Vorlesen – Investition in Mitgefühl und solidarisches Handeln“ (2015), S. 40

 

Vorlesen stärkt soziale Beziehungen ...

„Vorlesen stärkt soziale Beziehungen. 40 Prozent der Kinder, denen täglich vorgelesen wurde, zeigen sich im Alltag besonders darum bemüht, andere in die Gemeinschaft zu integrieren. Dies gilt nur für 17 Prozent der Kinder, denen selten oder nie vorgelesen wurde.“

Stiftung Lesen (Hrsg.), „Vorlesen – Investition in Mitgefühl und solidarisches Handeln“ (2015), S. 42

 

Vorlesen stärkt gesellschaftliches Miteinander ...

„Vorlesen stärkt gesellschaftliches Miteinander. 85 Prozent der Kinder, denen täglich vorgelesen wurde, besitzen nach Aussage ihrer Mütter einen ausgeprägten Gerechtigkeitssinn, aber nur 40 Prozent derjenigen, denen selten oder nie vorgelesen wurde.“

Stiftung Lesen (Hrsg.), „Vorlesen – Investition in Mitgefühl und solidarisches Handeln“ (2015), S. 44

 

Leistungsrückstand zu Beginn der Grundschulzeit ...

„Weinert und Helmke konnten in der SCHOLASTIK-Grundschulstudie zeigen, dass Kinder ihren Leistungsrückstand zu Beginn der Grundschulzeit während der Grundschulzeit nicht mehr aufholen konnten, d. h. Leistungspositionen bleiben im Grundschulalter relativ stabil, weshalb die mathematische Frühförderung im Elternhaus und/oder auch die externe Frühförderung, z. B. in Kindergärten, wesentlich für die Leistungsentwicklung ist.“

BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PIRLS & TIMSS 2011“ (2015), S. 87

 

USA: 72 percent of middle-class children know the alphabet when starting school ...

USA: „According to one national study, 72 percent of middle-class children know the alphabet when starting school, as opposed to only 19 percent of poor children.“ (S. 116)

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Robert Putnam, „Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis“ (2015), S. 116

 

USA: Class-based disparities in cognitive, emotional, and social capabilities emerge at very early ages ...

USA: „Class-based disparities in cognitive, emotional, and social capabilities emerge at very early ages and remain stable over the life course, which implies that, whatever the causal factors, those factors operate most strongly in the preschool years.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Robert Putnam, „Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis“ (2015), S. 117

 

Good day care makes less difference to child development than good parenting ...

„Good day care makes less difference to child development than good parenting – but, on average, children of more educated parents get more of both.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Robert Putnam, „Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis“ (2015), S. 129

 

Early cognitive ability influences later educational outcomes ...

„A number of longitudinal studies have shown that early cognitive ability influences later educational outcomes, with evidence to suggest that assessments of ability at 22 and 42 months predict educational outcomes at age 26 years.“

Dr. Stacey Fox, „Better Systems, Better Chances“ (2015), S. 265

 

Better reading literacy results among children of comparable socio-economic backgrounds who attend preschool...

„Among children of comparable socio-economic backgrounds, those who attend preschool in their current OECD host country obtain better reading literacy results at 15 years old than those who do not.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2015 - Settling In“ (2015), S. 240

 

A child’s early years matter tremendously ...

„A child’s early years matter tremendously in the development of skills, as they lay the foundations for future skill development. […] During these years, family is of crucial importance and the patterns of interaction between parents and children have significant impacts on cognitive, social and emotional skills.“

Hiroko Ikesako u. a., „Fostering social and emotional skills through families, schools and communities“ (2015), S. 14

 

Niederlande: Children from a disadvantaged background aged 2½ to 4 ...

Niederlande: „Children from a disadvantaged background aged 2½ to 4 are offered support through targeted early childhood education programs (voorschoolse educatie), which reach around 45 000 children.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Early Childhood Education and Care Systems in Europe“ (2015), S. 31

 

Estland: Competitive entry into childcare provision ...

„Children in Estonia begin school at 7, but even before this there is competitive entry into childcare provision which often includes in-depth education in foreign languages and sciences.“

Jacobs Stiftung (Hrsg.), „Children’s views on their lives and well-being in 15 countries“ (2015), S. 75

 

Early childhood education particularly beneficial for students with an immigrant background ...

„Early childhood education is particularly beneficial for students with an immigrant background. Among 15-year-old immigrant students who arrived in their OECD host country before the age of 6, the gap in performance between those who had attended pre-primary education and those who had not is equivalent to around two years of schooling.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators“ (2015), S. 322

 

Mandatory assessment of language development for all 3-year-olds ...

„Denmark, for example, introduced a mandatory assessment of language development for all 3-year-olds that aims to diagnose possible language problems before children start school.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Immigrant Students at School“ (2015), S. 86

 

Children whose parents engage in reading, writing words, telling stories ....

„Analysis of PISA data shows that children whose parents engage in reading, writing words, telling stories and singing songs not only tend to score better in reading literacy but are also more motivated to learn.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Skills for Social Progress“ (2015), S. 82

 

Preschoolers being able to add and subtract a goal in the USA ...

USA: „In about 15 years we’ve moved from virtually no preschoolers being able to add and subtract to the goal of all four-year-olds being able to do so.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Drew H. Bailey, „What’s the Point of Teaching Math in Preschool?“, www.brookings.edu am 13. November 2014

 

Strong empirical relations between children’s school-entry math achievement and their math achievement many years later ...

„There are strong empirical relations between children’s school-entry math achievement and their math achievement many years later.“

Dr. Drew H. Bailey, „What’s the Point of Teaching Math in Preschool?“, www.brookings.edu am 13. November 2014

 

Kindergarten erreicht viele sozial Schwache nicht ...

„The gap in pre-primary attendance rates between socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged pupils is growing.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 40“ (Juni 2014), S. 1

 

Students who had attended pre-primary education tend to perform better ...

„PISA consistently finds that 15-year-old students who had attended pre-primary education tend to perform better than those who had not attended pre-primary education, even after accounting for the students’ socio-economic status.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 40, Juni 2014, S. 2

 

Disadvantaged students and advantaged students in pre‑primary education ...

„In 2012, an average of 67 % of disadvantaged students had attended preprimary education for more than one year, while 82% of advantaged students had done so.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 40, Juni 2014, S. 3

 

Die ersten 5 Lebensjahre sind von entscheidender Bedeutung ...

„Die ersten 5 Lebensjahre sind von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Entwicklung und Sozialisierung eines Kindes. Finden in dieser Zeit soziale Integration und Entwicklungsförderung nicht oder nur ungenügend statt, fehlen dem Kind wichtige Grundkompetenzen, die es in der Schule im schlimmsten Fall während der gesamten Schulzeit nicht mehr aufholen kann.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Remo Largo, „Schule endlich beim Kind angekommen“ in Wyss (Hrsg.), „Von der Krippe zum Gymnasium“ (2014)

 

Förderung vor Schuleintritt und in den ersten Schuljahren die beste Grundlage für eine erfolgreiche Entwicklung und Integration ...

„Aus den wissenschaftlichen Befunden ist abzuleiten, dass insbesondere die Förderung vor Schuleintritt und in den ersten Schuljahren die beste Grundlage für eine erfolgreiche Entwicklung und Integration liefert, etwa die Förderung der Sprachkompetenz oder der Fähigkeiten zur Selbststeuerung.“

Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften Leopoldina (Hrsg.), „Frühkindliche Sozialisation“ (2014), S. 4

 

Elterliche Frühförderung wichtiger als Einkommen und beruflicher Status ...

„Kein anderer Faktor wirkt sich den Forschungsergebnissen nach so stark auf den erzieherischen Einfluss aus wie das, was die Eltern in den frühen Jahren mit ihren Kindern zu Hause tun. Das ist wichtiger als das, wer die Eltern sind – im Sinne von Einkommen und beruflichem Status.“

Nathalie Spencer u. a., „Schüler richtig motivieren“ (2014), S. 21

 

Drawing conclusions from the available data on ECEC ...

„In drawing conclusions from the available data on ECEC (Anm.: Early Childhood Education and Care), it is useful to distinguish between results for children aged 0 to 3, which are mixed, with some studies pointing to negative or null outcomes, and studies assessing the impact of ECEC on children aged 3 and over, which generally indicate positive results from group-based ECEC, in playgroups, nursery schools, etc.“

Benoit Guerin, „Breaking the cycle of disadvantage“ (2014), S. 7

 

In certain European countries ECEC is specifically targeted towards children at risk between the age of 2 and 5 ...

„In certain European countries, including the Netherlands, ECEC (Anm.: Early Childhood Education and Care) is specifically targeted towards children at risk between the age of 2 and 5, chiefly those from ethnic minorities or with poorly educated parents.“

Benoit Guerin, „Breaking the cycle of disadvantage“ (2014), S. 8

 

Only very early interventions (before age three) improve IQ in a lasting way ...

„Only very early interventions (before age three) improve IQ in a lasting way, consistent with the evidence that early childhood is a critical period for cognitive development. The most successful interventions target pre-schoolers (after age three) and primary school children. They improve later-life outcomes by developing non-cognitive skills.“

Dr. Tim Kautz u. a., „Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success“ (2014), S. 34

 

Native-born children of immigrants who attend ECEC ...

„Native-born children of immigrants who attend ECEC (Anm.: ECEC = early childhood education and care) are a full one year ahead in reading skills at the age of 15, according to PISA data. These effects persist even after controlling for parental education, reasons for migration, and the language spoken at home.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „International Migration Outlook 2014“ (2014), S. 91f

 

Early contact with host-country educational institutions has proven crucial ...

„For the native-born children of immigrants with low-educated parents, early contact with host-country educational institutions has proven crucial for future integration outcomes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „International Migration Outlook 2014“ (2014), S. 42

 

Individuelle Fähigkeiten durch Anlage begrenzt ...

„Die Umweltbedingungen bestimmen, wie viel das Kind von seiner Anlage realisieren kann. Die individuellen Fähigkeiten werden also durch die Anlage begrenzt und können auch unter optimalen Bedingungen nicht über die Anlage hinaus gesteigert werden.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Remo Largo, „Schule endlich beim Kind angekommen“ in Wyss (Hrsg.), „Von der Krippe zum Gymnasium“ (2014)

 

Das Nervensystem ‚erwartet‘ Umweltreize ...

„Das Nervensystem ‚erwartet‘ Umweltreize, damit sich genetisch angelegte Strukturen entwickeln. Fehlen diese Erfahrungen oder werden nur eingeschränkte Erfahrungen gemacht, so entwickeln sich die neuronalen Verschaltungen atypisch und dies geht in der Regel mit funktionalen Einschränkungen einher, die gar nicht bzw. nicht vollständig reversibel sind.“

Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften Leopoldina (Hrsg.), „Frühkindliche Sozialisation“ (2014), S. 26

 

The absence of opportunities for informal education in the home ...

„The absence of opportunities for informal education in the home – be it situations of play, or informal problem solving – can foster early differences in academic achievement, intelligence and even language acquisition. Data indicates that before the age of 3, children from well-off backgrounds possess a vocabulary 30 million words larger than children from poorer families.“

Benoit Guerin, „Breaking the cycle of disadvantage“ (2014), S. 4

 

Children born into low SES families are more likely to be insufficiently stimulated ...

„Children born into low SES families are more likely to be insufficiently stimulated owing to a poor home learning environment. Such insufficient stimulation in early childhood can result in significant differences in brain size and abnormal cortex development by the age of 3, reflected in poorer cognitive and social development. The gap in cognitive performance across socioeconomic groups at 22 months has been found to correlate with schooling outcomes at the age of 26.“

Benoit Guerin, „Breaking the cycle of disadvantage“ (2014), S. 5

 

Early Childhood Education and Care only forms part of a range of activities that can help foster child development ...

„ECEC (Anm.: Early Childhood Education and Care) should not be considered the ‘silver bullet’ in social policy: first, it only forms part of a range of activities that can help foster child development; second, a host of other factors play a major role in child development, many of which are not associated with childcare. For instance, a healthy mother, warm and responsive family relationships, a stimulating environment and the availability of safe outdoor play also help to secure a ‘good start’ for children.“

Benoit Guerin, „Breaking the cycle of disadvantage“ (2014), S. 7

 

At age three, children from professional families speak 50 % more words than children from working-class families ...

„At age three, children from professional families speak 50 % more words than children from working-class families and more than twice as many compared to children from welfare families.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. James Heckman u. a., „The economics of human development and social mobility“ (2014), S. 8

 

Raw intelligence is not fixed solely by parental genes, although heritability plays an important role in shaping it ...

„Raw intelligence is not fixed solely by parental genes, although heritability plays an important role in shaping it. It is boosted by quality parenting and by caring environments. It becomes solidified around the time of puberty.“

Dr. Tim Kautz u. a., „Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success“ (2014), S. 11

 

Gaps in skills emerge early, before formal schooling begins ...

„Gaps in skills emerge early, before formal schooling begins. Waiting until kindergarten to address these gaps is a poor strategy. It creates achievement gaps for disadvantaged children that are costly to close.“

Dr. Tim Kautz u. a., „Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success“ (2014), S. 11

 

The foundations set in the first thousand days of a child’s life ...

„The foundations set in the first thousand days of a child’s life, from conception to the second birthday, are critical for future well-being.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Teaching and learning – Achieving quality for all“ (2014), S. 1

 

Verfahren zur Feststellung des Sprachstands ...

„Verfahren zur Feststellung des Sprachstands müssen früh, eventuell bei den bereits erfolgenden nachgeburtlichen Untersuchungen beim Kinderarzt oder Pädaudiologen beginnen.“

Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften Leopoldina (Hrsg.), „Frühkindliche Sozialisation“ (2014), S. 10

 

ECEC participation has a stronger positive effect ...

„ECEC participation has a stronger positive effect on the reading scores of disadvantaged children than on the results of their better off peers.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Early Childhood Education and Care 2014“ (2014), S. 3

Anm.: ECEC = Early childhood education and care

 

Educational activities such as reading a story ...

„Educational activities such as reading a story, being talked to, or helping with chores are the most 'productive', particularly when they are done with the parents.“

Dr. Mario Fiorini u. a., „How the Allocation of Children’s Time Affects Cognitive and Noncognitive Development“ in „Journal of Labor Economics“, 2014, vol. 32, no. 4, S. 830f

 

A parenting style that combines effective (but not harsh) discipline with parental warmth ...

„A parenting style that combines effective (but not harsh) discipline with parental warmth and affection leads to the best behavioral outcomes. Either leniency or excessive harshness in discipline lead to worse outcomes.“

Dr. Mario Fiorini u. a., „How the Allocation of Children’s Time Affects Cognitive and Noncognitive Development“ in „Journal of Labor Economics“, 2014, vol. 32, no. 4, S. 833

 

Children exposed to a new language during the critical period become fluent relatively easily ...

„Developing receiving country language skills is an extremely important part of intergenerational immigrant integration. […] Children exposed to a new language during the critical period become fluent relatively easily, whereas those exposed later have much less certainty regarding attaining fluency.“

Prof. Dr. Arthur Sweetman u. a., „Immigration: What About the Children and Grandchildren?“ (2014), S. 17f

 

Kinder, um die sich bis zum Alter von zwei Jahren keiner gekümmert hat ...

„Kinder, um die sich bis zum Alter von zwei Jahren keiner gekümmert hat, das zeigen Studien mit osteuropäischen Waisen, können ihr Intelligenzpotenzial auch in fürsorglichen Adoptionsfamilien später nicht mehr voll entfalten.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Elsbeth Stern, Die Zeit vom 21. März 2013

 

The size of the effects of parental reading to children on the reading and other cognitive skills of their children is substantial ...

„The size of the effects of parental reading to children on the reading and other cognitive skills of their children is substantial. As indicated before, comparing it to the effect of being older in age, reading on 3-5 days per week to boys has a similar effect as being just under half a year older, whereas reading on 6-7 days per week has a similar effect as being just under one year older. For girls the effects are slightly larger relative to age than for boys, comparing to just over half a year increase in age and just over one year increase in age respectively.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Guyonne Kalb u. a., „ Reading to Young Children: A Head-Start in Life?“ (2013), S. 25

 

Knowledge of the alphabet before the beginning of primary school ...

„Our analysis of the PIRLS 2011 data shows that the knowledge of the alphabet before the beginning of primary school would significantly improve the future reading development of students in grade four.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Reading Literacy in EU Countries: Evidences from PIRLS“ (2013), S. 60

 

Only very early interventions (before age 3) improve IQ ...

„Only very early interventions (before age 3) improve IQ in a lasting way, consistent with the evidence that early childhood is a critical period for cognitive development.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. James Heckman, „Fostering and measuring skills: Interventions that improve character and cognition“ (2013), S. 35

 

Higher test scores for children who attend high-quality preschools ...

„Children who attend high-quality preschools have higher test scores, fewer behavior problems and lower rates of grade repetition. They also have higher rates of high school graduation, improved employment opportunities and earnings, and lower rates of drug abuse and depression.“

The Annie E. Casey Foundation (Hrsg.), „The First Eight Years“ (2013), S. 8

 

Südkorea: A large number of children attend private institutions ...

Südkorea: „A large number of children attend private institutions known as hagwons, instead of or in addition to childcare and kindergarten. Hagwons are primarily focused on academics, teaching children particular skills, particularly in foreign languages and mathematics, as well as music and art.“

Dr. Randall S. Jones, „Education Reform in Korea“ (2013), S. 8f

 

Fine motor skills have an incrementally predictive value for math achievement beyond the predictive contribution of cognitive abilities ...

„Findings of research conducted in Germany indicate that fine motor skills have an incrementally predictive value for math achievement beyond the predictive contribution of cognitive abilities. Furthermore, differences between gifted achievers and underachievers could be explained best by fine motor skills and their interaction with concentration. Fine motor skills had a significant influence on the results in IQ tests and therefore on the identification of giftedness.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Albert Ziegler u. a., „Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe“. In: „Journal for the Education of the Gifted“ (2013) 36(3), S. 400

 

Spätestens zwischen dem dritten und vierten Lebensjahr muss ein intensiver Spracherwerb stattfinden ...

„Aus empirischen Untersuchungen wissen wir, dass spätestens zwischen dem dritten und vierten Lebensjahr ein intensiver Spracherwerb stattfinden muss, um sicherzustellen, dass die Kinder dann mit sechs Jahren überhaupt beschulbar sind - also dem Unterricht folgen können.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Dieter Lenzen, Die Welt ONLINE am 17. Dezember 2012

 

Im Kindergarten bilden sich die Grundlagen für die spätere Entwicklung ...

„Gerade im Kindergarten bilden sich die Grundlagen für die spätere Entwicklung. Erstens eignen sich Kindergärten sehr gut, um Risikokinder aufzufangen. Und zweitens ist die Lernfähigkeit in diesem Alter riesengroß.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Franzis Preckel, Focus ONLINE am 2. Dezember 2012

 

The gaps in cognitive achievement by level of maternal education ...

„The gaps in cognitive achievement by level of maternal education that we observe at age eighteen – powerful predictors of who goes to college and who does not – are mostly present at age six, when children enter school.“

Univ.-Prof. James Heckman, Nobelpreisträger des Jahres 2000 für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, bostonreview.net am 1. September 2012

 

Der intensive Kontakt zur Mutter ...

„Im ersten Lebensjahr, das zeigen die Untersuchungen der Bindungsforschung eindeutig, ist der intensive Kontakt zur Mutter oder zu einer anderen Bezugsperson entscheidend, damit Kinder sich gesund und normal entwickeln.“

Univ.-Prof. DDr. Lieselotte Ahnert, Die Zeit ONLINE am 9. Juli 2012

 

Schulen, an denen weniger als 25 Prozent der Schülerschaft über die Fähigkeit verfügt, Zahlen zu schreiben, wenn sie das erste Schuljahr beginnen ...

„In Deutschland besuchen 40.1 Prozent der Schülerinnen und Schüler Schulen, an denen nach Angaben der Schulleitungen weniger als 25 Prozent der Schülerschaft über die Fähigkeit verfügt, Zahlen zu schreiben, wenn sie das erste Schuljahr beginnen.“

Dr. Kerstin Drossel u. a., „Merkmale der Lehr- und Lernbedingungen im Primarbereich“ in in Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wilfried Bos u. a., „TIMSS 2011“ (2012), S. 190

In Österreich sind es sogar 57,1 Prozent.

 

Die Einstellung der Eltern und ihre Unterstützung des Schriftspracherwerbs ...

„Die Einstellung der Eltern und ihre Unterstützung des Schriftspracherwerbs haben einen sehr großen Einfluss auf die Entwicklung der Lese- und Schreibkompetenz ihrer Kinder bis in die Sekundarschulzeit hinein. Maßnahmen mit dem Ziel, die Unterstützungsleistungen der Eltern zu verbessern, haben einen großen Einfluss auf die Lese- und Schreibkompetenz des Kindes.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Literacy Report“ (2012), deutschsprachige Zusammenfassung, S. 6

 

Die Schulen können nur begrenzt kompensieren ...

„Die Schulen können nur begrenzt kompensieren, wenn in den ersten sechs Lebensjahren die Fähigkeiten und Begabungen der Kinder teilweise nur unzureichend gefördert werden.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Renate Köcher, „Lehre(r) in Zeiten der Bildungspanik“ (2012), S. 4

 

In Finland, a maternity pack is available for free to all families with a new-born child ...

„In Finland, a maternity pack is available for free to all families with a new-born child including clothes and other necessary equipment for the new-born and the parents. The maternity pack also includes a baby’s first picture book, together with guidance for parents about the importance of early interaction with the baby.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy. Final Report“ (2012), S. 41

 

Niederlande: Various programmes to involve all parents and babies in reading activities ...

„In the Netherlands, there are various programmes that work with local libraries and the local agencies for parents and new-born babies (the ‘Consultatiebureaus’). The aim is to involve all parents and babies in reading activities, and get them into the libraries, where librarians support the parents in reading activities with the children.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy. Final Report“ (2012), S. 41

 

By the age of three, children in literacy-rich households will hear some 20 million more words than their less-advantaged peers ...

„Researchers in the US have estimated that by the age of three, children in literacy-rich households will hear some 20 million more words than their less-advantaged peers. In the United Kingdom, three-year-old children of highly educated parents have vocabularies that are nearly a year ahead of children whose parents have no qualifications.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy. Final Report“ (2012), S. 58

 

Qualität entscheidet ...

„While most ECEC policy efforts until recently have focused on increasing enrolments, it is increasingly recognised that the quality of provision is the key to ECEC’s social and educational benefits.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy. Final Report“ (2012), S. 59

 

Socio-economically disadvantaged children have the most to gain from high-quality early learning ...

„Socio-economically disadvantaged children have the most to gain from high-quality early learning. Yet it is often these children who are the least likely to attend, particularly when fees are charged. Increasing ECEC participation among socially disadvantaged children can thus help reduce literacy gaps later across the entire school system.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy. Final Report“ (2012), S. 61

 

An extra day per week of parent-child reading during the first ten years of life ...

„An extra day per week of parent-child reading during the first ten years of life raises a child’s performance on standardized reading tests by about half of a standard deviation.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Joseph Price, „The Effect of Parental Time Investments“ (2012), Abstract

 

Ability gaps open up at early ages ...

„Ability gaps between individuals and across socioeconomic groups open up at early ages, for both cognitive and socio-emotional skills. Cognitive abilities become stable around the age of 10.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Giorgio Brunello u. a., „Books Are Forever: Early Life Conditions, Education and Lifetime Income“ (2012), S. 12

 

British Columbia provides a systematic, rigorous language education for its immigrant students ...

„British Columbia provides a systematic, rigorous language education for its immigrant students starting from the pre-primary grades. As part of the kindergarten curriculum, children with limited proficiency in English (L2) receive five to eight hours per week of L2 language support.“

Esther Yoona Cho, „Migrants, language and education: An international perspective“. In: OECD (Hrsg.), „Languages in a Global World“ (2012), S. 341

 

It does not require a PhD or unlimited hours for parents to make a difference ...

„It does not require a PhD or unlimited hours for parents to make a difference in their children‘s education. In fact, many parent-child activities that are associated with better reading performance among students involve relatively little time and no specialised knowledge.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Let’s Read Them a Story“ (2012), S. 12

 

Even older students benefit when their parents are actively engaged in their education ...

„Some parents believe that once their child begins formal schooling, only teachers are responsible for educating them. But education is a shared responsibility; and results from PISA show that even older students benefit when their parents are actively engaged in their education.”

OECD (Hrsg.), „Let’s Read them a Story“ (2012), S. 30

 

The recommended maximum number of children per ECEC ...

„The recommended maximum number of children per ECEC (Anm.: ECEC = „Early Childhood Education and Care) professional in Finland is among the most favourable in the OECD (1:4 for zero-to-three-year-olds; 1:7 for older children in ECEC; and 1:4 in family day care).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Finland“ (2012), S. 10

 

Staff-child ratios are found to be important ...

„Staff-child ratios are found to be important for all young children, but there is evidence that infants and toddlers especially benefit from high staff-child ratios.“

OECD, „Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Finland“ (2012), S. 37

 

Finland has the best staff-child ratio in ECEC ...

„Finland has the best staff-child ratio in ECEC (Anm.: ECEC = „Early Childhood Education and Care) services for zero-to-three-year-olds as well as in ECEC services for three-to-six-year-olds.“

OECD, „Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Finland“ (2012), S. 22

 

Attendance in pre-primary education especially beneficial for children of immigrants ......

„Although all children can be expected to benefit from attendance in pre-primary education, attendance can be especially beneficial for children of immigrants, in particular those who do not speak the host-country language at home.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Settling In - OECD Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2012“ (2012), S. 78

 

Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged households benefit from high quality early education programs ...

„Research on the effects of early intervention suggests that children from socioeconomically disadvantaged households benefit a good deal when placed in high quality early education programs.“

NICHD (Hrsg.), „Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development“ (2012), S. 15

 

Mutter-Kind-Beziehung prägt ...

„One of the most important and consistent predictors of child cognitive and social development was the quality of the mother-child interactions. The more sensitive, responsive, attentive, and cognitively stimulating the mother was during observed interactions, the better the children’s outcomes.“

NICHD (Hrsg.), „Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development“ (2012), S. 23

 

Leistungsvorsprung durch elterliches Vorlesen erkennbar ...

„Der Leistungsvorsprung der Schülerinnen und Schüler, denen ihre Eltern in den ersten Schuljahren vorgelesen haben, ist unabhängig vom sozioökonomischen Hintergrund der Familien zu erkennen.“

OECD, „PISA im Fokus 10“ (November 2011), S. 1

 

Genuine interest and active engagement ...

„It does not require a PhD or unlimited hours for parents to make a difference. […] What these activities do demand, though, is genuine interest and active engagement.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 10“ (November 2011), S. 1

 

When parents read a book with their child ...

„The score point difference in reading that is associated with parental involvement is largest when parents read a book with their child, when they talk about things they have done during the day, and when they tell stories to their children.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 10“ (November 2011), S. 3

 

All parents can help their children achieve their full potential ...

„All parents can help their children achieve their full potential by spending some time talking and reading with their children – even, perhaps especially, when their children are very young.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 10“ (November 2011), S. 4

 

Early education for disadvantaged children ...

„Investment in early education for disadvantaged children from birth to age 5 helps reduce the achievement gap, reduce the need for special education, increase the likelihood of healthier lifestyles, lower the crime rate, and reduce overall social costs.“

Univ.-Prof. James Heckman, „American Educator“, Frühjahr 2011, S. 32

 

High-quality parenting can be available to a child even when the family is in adverse financial circumstances ...

„High-quality parenting can be available to a child even when the family is in adverse financial circumstances. […] Since inequality starts at or before birth, it can and should be corrected at or before birth with the resource of early childhood and parental education.“

Univ.-Prof. James Heckman, „American Educator“, Frühjahr 2011, S. 33f

 

Schooling after the second grade plays only a minor role in creating or reducing gaps ...

„Schooling after the second grade plays only a minor role in creating or reducing gaps.“

Univ.-Prof. James Heckman, „American Educator“, Frühjahr 2011, S. 34

 

Finnland: Spezieller Sprachförderungsunterricht für Schüler mit leichten Lern- oder Anpassungsschwierigkeiten ...

Finnland: „Für Schüler mit leichten Lern- oder Anpassungsschwierigkeiten, die besondere Unterstützung benötigen, wird ein spezieller Sprachförderungsunterricht angeboten, der entweder in kleinen Gruppen oder als Einzelunterricht erteilt wird. Ziel ist es, die Schüler frühzeitig wirksam zu fördern, auch um zu vermeiden, dass die Schüler in anderen Fächern und/oder zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt ihrer Schulbildung Schwierigkeiten bekommen.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Leseerziehung in Europa“ (2011), S. 163

 

Israel: The nationwide selection of gifted and outstanding children takes place at a rather early age ...

Israel: „The nationwide selection of gifted and outstanding children takes place at a rather early age, in the second and third grades, with the help of cognitive tests drafted by the Szold Institute on appointment by the Ministry of Education.“

Dr. János Gordon Győri u. a., „Centres for talent development in Israel“. In: Győri, „International horizons of talent support. Best practices within and without the European Union“ (2011), S. 122f

 

Shared book reading ...

„Shared book reading may be a particularly important bedtime routine to encourage healthy cognitive development because it facilitates children’s vocabulary development, language and reading skills, and positive attitudes toward literacy.“

Dr. Lauren Hale u. a., „A Longitudinal Study of Preschoolers’ Language-Based Bedtime Routines, Sleep Duration, and Well-Being“. In: „Journal of Family Psychology“, 2011, Vol. 25, No. 3, S. 424

 

Home learning environment that has a significant impact on children's attainment at school entry ...

„Several aspects of the home learning environment had a significant impact on children's attainment at school entry. These include: the frequency with which children play with letters or numbers at home, parents drawing children's attention to sounds and letters, the frequency with which parents report reading to their child, and the frequency of library visits.“

Jon Carpentieri u. a., „Family literacy in Europe” (2011), S. 46

 

Language screening at the age of three, such as practiced e.g. in Denmark, tends to be more effective ...

„An evaluation of early language support, however, suggests that the training period of one year may be insufficient and that language screening at the age of three, such as practiced e.g. in Denmark, tends to be more effective.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „The labour market integration of immigrants and their children in Austria“. In: „Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers“ (2011), S. 59

 

Norwegen: Sprachtraining für Eltern mit Migrationshintergrund ...

„Norway combines Norwegian language training for immigrant parents with open access to kindergartens.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Starting Strong III“ (2011), S. 264

 

At two-and-half Finnish children are tested for emergent cognitive problems ...

„At two-and-half Finnish children are tested for emergent cognitive problems, and by the time they reach pre-school, at age six, their teachers will be able to anticipate learning difficulties on the basis of a rich battery of further tests.“

Univ.-Prof. Charles Sabel u.a., „Individualized Service Provision in the New Welfare State - Lessons from Special Education in Finland“ (2011), S. 12

 

Associations between early and extensive child care and child behavior problems ...

„While studies have shown that high-quality child care and education for infants and toddlers raises cognitive achievement, studies have also found associations between early and extensive child care and child behavior problems, particularly when care is of low quality.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jane Waldfogel u. a., „Early Years Policy“ (2011), S. 8

 

Ein erheblicher Teil der Mathematikleistung am Ende der Grundschulzeit lässt sich anhand der Zahlenfertigkeit des letzten Kindergartenjahres vorhersagen ...

„Internationale Studien zeigten, dass sich ein erheblicher Teil der Mathematikleistung am Ende der Grundschulzeit anhand der Zahlenfertigkeit des letzten Kindergartenjahres vorhersagen lasse.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Heinz-Elmar Tenorth, Bildungswissenschaftler an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom 24. September 2010

 

IQ scores stable by age 10 ...

„Different types of abilities appear to be manipulable at different ages. IQ scores become stable by age 10 or so, suggesting a sensitive period for their formation below age 10.“

Dr. Flavio Cunha u. a., „Investing in Our Young People“ (2010), S. 3

 

Auf die ersten drei Lebensjahre kommt es an ...

„Differences in academic attainment and social development related to background emerged early (at age 3) and have remained fairly stable through to the end of Key Stage 3 (Anm.: mit 14 Jahren).“

Department for Education (Hrsg.), „Effective Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education 3-14 Project (EPPSE 3-14)“ (2010), Executive summary

 

England: Children of worse off parents who scored poorly are clearly shown to be an at-risk group ...

England: „The children of educated or wealthy parents who scored poorly in the early tests (Anm.: Intelligenztests mit 22 Monaten), had a tendency to catch up whereas children of worse off parents who scored poorly were extremely unlikely to catch up and are clearly shown to be an at-risk group.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Leon Feinstein, „Inequality in the early cognitive development of British children in the 1970 Cohort“ (2010), Abstract

 

In Denmark, all children undergo language screening at age three and are obliged to complete a language stimulation course ...

„In Denmark, all children undergo language screening at age three and are obliged to complete a language stimulation course if professionals decide that they need it.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Closing the Gap for Immigrant Students“ (2010), S. 51

 

In Norway, children’s language development is assessed at age four ...

„In Norway, children’s language development is assessed at age four both in their mother language and Norwegian at health clinics.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Closing the Gap for Immigrant Students“ (2010), S. 52

 

In Denmark, all bilingual children undergo a language screening at age 3 ...

„In Denmark, all bilingual children undergo a language screening at age 3. Children who are found to have a need for language development are required to participate in a language stimulation programme for as long as the need exists, which for many children means that they attend the programme until they start school at age 6. If they do not attend a day care facility, they are required to attend a free, 15-hour-a-week language stimulation programme.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Review of Migrant Education; Austria“ (2010), S. 39

 

At two-and-half Finnish children are tested ...

„At two-and-half Finnish children are tested for emergent cognitive problems, and by the time they reach pre-school, at age six, their teachers will be able to anticipate learning difficulties on the basis of a rich battery of further tests.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Charles Sabel u. a., „Individualized Service Provision in the New Welfare State: Lessons from Special Education in Finland“ (2010), S. 5