A- A A+
 
A- A A+

Verengung durch Messung ...

„The need to judge the success or failure of educational policy through standardised evidence has led to a focus on measuring ‘outcomes’ through testing. At the same time, the main objective of education policy is often to develop the skills needed for an unpredictable labour market, with a particular concentration on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). It is rare that other subjects are accorded equal importance in policy discussions, or that goals such as personal fulfilment and wellbeing are valued. As a result, schools put children under pressure to succeed in a narrow range of subjects, while either overtly or implicitly labelling them as successes or failures during the process. Meanwhile activities that can foster the development of personality and counterbalance stress, such as sport, music, dance and art, are squeezed.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Focus on: Mental Health in education: an unspoken issue of our age“, 19. Dezember 2017

 

Too much testing could lead to much pressure on students and teachers ...

„Too much testing could lead to much pressure on students and teachers to learn and teach for a test, something that would take the joy out of the learning process.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „„PISA in Focus“, Nr. 79, Dezember 2017, S. 2

 

A country’s performance in PISA is unrelated to the use of standardised testing ...

„A country’s performance in PISA is […] unrelated to the use of standardised testing. Among countries and economies that perform near the top in science, the use of mandatory standardised tests is widespread in Beijing-Shanghai-Jiangsu-Guangdong (China), Singapore and the United Kingdom, but relatively uncommon in Germany, Korea and Switzerland.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „„PISA in Focus“, Nr. 79, Dezember 2017, S. 4

 

Lehrende und Schulen unter Evaluationsdruck ...

„LehrerInnen neigen deshalb dazu, sich auf das mittlere Leistungsfeld zu konzentrieren, denn hier ist es am einfachsten, Zugewinne zu generieren. Dabei geht das Augenmerk auf SchülerInnen, die über- oder unterdurchschnittliche Leistungen erbringen, verloren.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stefan Hopmann, progress-online.at am 21. Juni 2017

 

Innovative change without care and diligence ...

„In some countries, innovative change has been implemented without the care and diligence needed or appropriate prior testing, experimentation and evaluation.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Schools at the crossroads of innovation in cities and regions“ (2017), S. 14

 

Finnland: No universal standardized testing ...

„A salient feature of educational practice in Finland is that there is no universal standardized testing used to evaluate students or school.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Empowered Educators“ (2017), S. 34

 

Finnland: No external standardized student testing ...

„Finland is well-known in the education world for the primacy of classroom-based assessment, using no external standardized student testing until the open-ended matriculation exam that is voluntary for students in 12th grade.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Empowered Educators“ (2017), S. 117

 

Test-based accountability has led to a corruption of the ideals of teaching ...

„Test-based accountability has led teachers to waste time on all manner of undesirable test preparation – for example, teaching children tricks to answer multiple-choice questions or ways to game the rules used to score the tests. […] Test-based accountability has led to a corruption of the ideals of teaching.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Daniel Koretz, „The Testing Charade. Pretending to Make Schools Better” (2017), S. 6

 

'Value-added' estimates used to evaluate teachers are highly imprecise ...

„Some of the measures we now use to control schools have more error than others. One of the worst in this respect is the 'value-added' estimates used to evaluate teachers in many states. These are highly imprecise, and ratings of many teachers fluctuate dramatically, sometimes wildly, from year to year.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Daniel Koretz, „The Testing Charade. Pretending to Make Schools Better” (2017), S. 15f

 

Testing creates strong incentives to focus on the tested sample ...

„Testing creates strong incentives to focus on the tested sample rather than the domain it is intended to represent.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Daniel Koretz, „The Testing Charade. Pretending to Make Schools Better” (2017), S. 18

 

In response to test-based accountability, many teachers shifted a good bit of instructional time from untested subjects into math and reading ...

„We know that in response to test-based accountability, many teachers shifted a good bit of instructional time from untested subjects, including science, art, music, and physical education, into math and reading, in some cases nearly or even entirely eliminating instruction in those other subjects.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Daniel Koretz, „The Testing Charade. Pretending to Make Schools Better” (2017), S. 190

 

Finland has no high-stakes testing at all other than matriculation exams at the end of high school ...

„Finland has no high-stakes testing at all other than matriculation exams at the end of high school. Evaluation of education is largely left to the professional judgement of local educators.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Daniel Koretz, „The Testing Charade. Pretending to Make Schools Better” (2017), S. 212

 

Finland stands out among OECD countries in the lack of high-stakes tests ...

„Finland stands out among OECD countries in the lack of high-stakes tests, and indeed the first national assessment is the matriculation examination at the end of general upper-secondary education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Finding the way: A discussion of the Finnish migrant integration system“ (2017), S. 18

 

Die Effektivität einer Schule zeigt sich am Kompetenzzuwachs der Schüler/innen ...

„Genau genommen zeigt sich die Effektivität einer Schule nicht am erreichten Kompetenzniveau der Schüler/innen, das stark von den Vorkenntnissen am Beginn ihrer Schullaufbahn abhängt, sondern an ihrem Kompetenzzuwachs. Anstatt nur den Leistungsstand der Schüler/innen bestimmter Schulstufen zu vergleichen, müsste man auch ihre Leistungsfortschritte in longitudinalen Studien messen.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 9

 

Anpassung der pädagogischen Ausrichtung auf die Testerwartungen ...

„Die große Bedeutung standardisierter Tests als Entscheidungsgrundlage für die finanzielle und personelle Ausstattung der Schulen führte in den USA und in England nachweisbar zu einer Anpassung der pädagogischen Ausrichtung auf die Testerwartungen („teaching to the test“).“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 15

 

Unterrichtszeit für Geschichte, Kunsterziehung, Musik oder Fremdsprachen eingespart ...

„Da die standardisierten Tests sich weitgehend auf die Grundfertigkeiten Lesen, Schreiben und Rechnen beschränken, haben viele Schulen in den USA und England die übrigen Lernangebote reduziert, v.a. in den Wahlfächern. In über 70 % aller US-Schuldistrikte wird Unterrichtszeit für Geschichte, Kunsterziehung, Musik oder Fremdsprachen eingespart zugunsten von mehr Mathematik und Englisch im Stundenplan.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 15

 

USA: Versuche, die Daten der Testergebnisse zu manipulieren ...

USA: „Der Druck, gute Testergebnisse zu liefern, führt auf allen Ebenen des Schulsystems (Klassenzimmer, Schulstandort, Schuldistrikt, Bundesstaat) zu Versuchen die Daten zu manipulieren, was ihre Aussagekraft naturgemäß verringert.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 17

 

Externe Schulevaluationen und ihre Veröffentlichung ungeeignet, das Schulsystem zu verbessern ...

„Aus einer Fülle von Evidenzen lässt sich schließen, dass die externen Schulevaluationen und ihre Veröffentlichung sowie daran geknüpfte Belohnungen bzw. Sanktionen sich als ungeeignet erweisen, das Schulsystem zu verbessern und den Eltern mehr Sicherheit bei der Schulwahl zu geben.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 20

 

Standardisierte Tests für sich alleine noch kein adäquates Instrument zur Steuerung des Schulsystems ...

USA: „Die große Mehrheit der US-Wissenschaftler/innen stimmt darin überein, dass sich die Erwartung, dass standardisierte Tests für sich alleine ein adäquates Instrument zur Steuerung des Schulsystems sind, nicht bestätigt hat und die Laufzeit des NCLB-Programms (Anm.: NCLB = „No Child Left Behind“) als „verlorenes Jahrzehnt“ in die Geschichte der Schulreformen eingehen wird.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 20

 

Monopolstellung des multinationalen Konzerns Pearson in weiten Teilen der USA ...

„Der multinationale Konzern Pearson mit weltweit 40.000 Mitarbeiter/innen, der die Verlage Addison-Wesley und Penguin-Random-House, Zeitungen wie der Financial Times, Vergnügungsparks und Madame-Tussaud-Wachsfigurenkabinette besitzt, hat sich in weiten Teilen der USA eine Monopolstellung gesichert. Er verkauft den US-Bundesstaaten nicht nur Tests, sondern bietet auch darauf abgestimmte Lehrbücher sowie Lern- und Lehrsoftware an.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 22

 

Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht ...

„Zahlreiche Untersuchungen bestätigen die Befürchtung, dass das Bestreben, gute Evaluationsergebnisse zu erzielen, Unterrichtsqualität und Lernangebotsvielfalt einengen, was sich auf die Lernleistungen negativ auswirkt.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 23

 

Gefahren im Zusammenhang mit Autonomie und Evaluation ...

„The increase in accountability that accompanies autonomy, together with high-stakes testing, may restrict innovation, especially where sanctions are imposed at school level.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016“ (2016), S. 61

 

Downstream effects of high stakes tests on the lower levels of education in Shanghai ...

Shanghai: „The high stakes zhong kao at the end of ninth grade and the gao kao at high school graduation have tremendous downstream effects on the lower levels of education and continue to influence teaching and learning for testing purposes only.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 82

 

In Shanghai, schools are not allowed to publish student assessment results to the public ...

„In Shanghai, schools are not allowed to publish student assessment results to the public under 'Regulations on Protection of Minors in Shanghai.' This policy is in place to avoid overemphasis on student scores; eliminate school rankings; and reduce exam pressure on students, teachers, and schools.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 80

 

Shanghai has made a deliberate effort to not use student exam results as an explicit mechanism for rewards or sanctions ...

„Shanghai has made a deliberate effort to not use student exam results as an explicit mechanism for rewards or sanctions. This policy seems to be directly opposite of the path taken, for example, in the United States. […] In countries where educational institutions are strong, especially in the training and selection of good teachers, autonomy and accountability in school-based management may not be a necessary condition for success. In these conditions, which are found in many highperforming countries in Europe and East Asia, trust is the main element of accountability.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 81f

 

Classroom assessments take place frequently in Shanghai’s education system ...

„Classroom assessments take place frequently in Shanghai’s education system. Students participate in weekly quizzes, oral tests and presentations, and homework assignments throughout the academic year. In addition to assessments planned by teachers for each individual class of students, students in the same grade regularly participate in common weekly or monthly, midterm, or finalterm paper-based assessments.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 86

 

Zhong kao, Shanghais rigorose Prüfung am Übergang von der Sekundarstufe I zur Sekundarstufe II ...

„At the end of lower secondary school (ninth grade), all students must take the Lower Secondary School Graduation Examination in Shanghai. The subjects tested include Chinese, math, English, physics, and chemistry. Physical education, lab operations, and moral ethics of students also factor into students’ final exam scores. The exam serves the dual purposes of selection into high schools and providing information on the overall performance of the basic education system. The total score on the exam determines the type of high school in which students will enroll: admission into highly selective comprehensive schools requires outstanding performance on the exam. […] Because of its primary purpose as a mechanism for selection into high school, the zhong kao has become increasingly high stakes for children in Shanghai. The test ultimately determines in which type of high school ninth-grade graduates can enroll.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 90f

 

School drills, practice tests, and after-school tutoring sessions for students in Shanghai ...

Shanghai: „Students undergo intensive preparation for gao kao, dedicating the last year of high school almost exclusively to demanding school drills, practice tests, and after-school tutoring sessions.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 94

 

Trust impacts the governance of education systems ...

„Trust impacts the governance of education systems in a number of ways. It enables stakeholders to take risks, facilitates interactions and co-operation, and reduces the need for control and monitoring.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Governing Education in a Complex World“ (2016), S. 222

 

Shanghai has made an effort not to rank ...

„One positive observation is that Shanghai has made an effort not to rank or publish individual student exam results or to use exam results as an explicit mechanism for teacher rewards or sanctions.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), Executive Summary

 

In the United Kingdom […] the permanent exclusion rate in schools increased ...

„In the United Kingdom […] the permanent exclusion rate in schools increased 300 % in the three years following the implementation of league tables.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Governing Education in a Complex World“ (2016), S. 85

 

Making school achievement data public is not correlated with better student outcomes ...

„PISA 2012 analyses make it clear that simply making school achievement data public is not correlated with better student outcomes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Governing Education in a Complex World“ (2016), S. 168

 

‚Teaching-to-the-Test‘ ...

„Standardbasierte Tests und Kompetenzorientierung führen mittels eines zunehmenden ‚Teaching-to-the-Test‘ immer mehr weg vom verstehenden Lernen und sorgen so für einen Bildungsabbau.“

Prof. Dr. Jochen Krautz, „ÖkologiePolitik“, Nr. 168 (November 2015), S. 32

 

Standardisierte Tests entprofessionalisieren die Lehrerschaft ...

„Standardisierte Tests entprofessionalisieren die Lehrerschaft. Sie müssen die Schüler auf die Tests hin trimmen, statt mit ihnen das Spannungsfeld der Bildung von Autonomie auszuloten.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wolfram Meyerhöfer, Neue Zürcher Zeitung online am 22. Juni 2015

 

Bildung kann gefördert, nicht aber vermessen werden ...

„Messen lassen sich Lernfortschritte oder Übungseffekte. Bildung kann gefördert, nicht aber vermessen werden.“

Dr. Axel Bernd Kunze, „Bildung ist mehr als Sozialpolitik“ in „elternforum“ (Zeitung der Katholischen Elternschaft Deutschlands), 2-2015, S. 9

 

Finland does not monitor ...

„Finland does not monitor the performance of schools, and school inspections were in fact abolished in 1991.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Starting Strong IV“ (2015), S. 208

 

Was für das Gelingen von Lernen wesentlich ist ...

„Was für das Gelingen von Lernen wesentlich ist, kann nicht auf dieselbe Art und Weise erfasst werden, wie man das Funktionieren technischer Geräte oder ökonomischen Erfolg misst.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Brügelmann, „Vermessene Schulen – standardisierte Schüler“ (2015), S. 11f

 

Vermessen wie Maschinen ...

„Menschen und ihr Lernen lassen sich nicht vermessen wie Maschinen und technische Prozesse. Und noch vermessener wäre es zu glauben, sie ließen sich in vergleichbarer Weise steuern und planen.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Brügelmann, „Vermessene Schulen – standardisierte Schüler“ (2015), S. 15

 

Politisch bedeutet die Zuständigkeit für Evaluation Macht ...

„Politisch bedeutet die Zuständigkeit für Evaluation Macht – und damit für die Betroffenen auch Abhängigkeit.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Brügelmann, „Vermessene Schulen – standardisierte Schüler“ (2015), S. 94

 

Betroffene durch externe Beurteilungen nicht entmündigen ...

„Ein demokratisches Verständnis von Evaluation fordert, die Betroffenen durch externe Beurteilungen nicht zu entmündigen, sondern sie in ihrer persönlichen Evaluations- und Problemlösekompetenz zu stärken.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Brügelmann, „Vermessene Schulen – standardisierte Schüler“ (2015), S. 94

 

Schulleistungen in Bundesstaaten mit hohen Sanktionen ...

„Studien in den USA belegen, dass die Schulleistungen in Bundesstaaten mit hohen Sanktionen für Institutionen oder Personengruppen in der Regel schlechter sind als in Bundesstaaten mit niedrigen Sanktionen: Über dem nationalen Durchschnitt liegen 60 bis 70 Prozent der Bundesstaaten mit niedrigen Sanktionen aber nur 10 bis 20 Prozent der Staaten mit hohen Sanktionen.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Brügelmann, „Vermessene Schulen – standardisierte Schüler“ (2015), S. 104

 

Evaluation als Blick von außen ist wichtig ...

„Evaluation als Blick von außen ist wichtig, um scheinbare Selbstverständlichkeiten in der Praxis infrage zu stellen – ‚von außen‘ heißt aber nicht zwingend ‚von oben‘. Dialog und Unterstützung statt Autoritätsanspruch und Vorschrift – nur so wird Evaluation im Bildungswesen produktiv.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Brügelmann, „Vermessene Schulen – standardisierte Schüler“ (2015), S. 130

 

Lehrerleistung ist nicht an der Schülerleistung zu bemessen ...

„Student achievement is the product of many factors, most of which teachers have little or no control over, such as students’ home and family contexts, their health and other personal factors, their other prior and current teachers, and school resources ranging from books, class size, and curriculum, to the availability of reading specialists. Indeed, researchers have found that teachers account for only about 7-10 % of the variance in student learning.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 22

 

No regular and systematic external evaluation of schools in Finland ...

„There is no regular and systematic external evaluation of schools in Finland.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Assuring Quality in Education“ (2015), S. 157

 

Benefits of collegiality ...

„There is increasing evidence internationally of the benefits of collegiality within and between schools but such collaboration is more difficult to achieve in a competitive environment.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Sweden: An OECD Perspective“ (2015), S. 152

 

Publikation von globalen Testdaten ...

„Wer in Ländern wie England und den USA beobachtet hat, welche Konsequenzen die Publikation von globalen Testdaten einzelner Schulen z.B. auf die Immobilienpreise von Stadtteilen hat, wird sich keine Illusionen machen, was den verständigen Umgang mit solchen Daten in der Öffentlichkeit betrifft.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Hans Brügelmann, „Vermessene Schulen – standardisierte Schüler“ (2015), S. 110

 

Vertrauen in die Professionalität der LehrerInnen ...

„The Finnish education system does not employ external standardized student testing to drive the performance of schools. Neither does it employ a rigorous inspection system of schools and teachers. Instead of test-based accountability, the Finnish system relies on the expertise and professional trust-based responsibility of teachers who are knowledgeable and committed to their students and communities.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, Developing Effective Teachers and School Leaders. The Case of Finland“. In: Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 32

 

Autonomie, Vertrauen und Respekt ...

„A key characteristic of Finnish teachers’ work environment is that they are autonomous, trusted, and respected professionals. Unlike nations that have bureaucratic accountability systems that make teachers feel threatened, overcontrolled, and undervalued, teaching in Finland is a very sophisticated profession, where teachers feel they can truly exercise the skills they have learned in the university. Test-based accountability is replaced by trust-based responsibility and inspiration for human development.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, Developing Effective Teachers and School Leaders. The Case of Finland“. In: Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 37f

 

Finnish schools accept that there may be some limitations on comparability when teachers do all the grading ...

„Finnish schools accept that there may be some limitations on comparability when teachers do all the grading. At the same time, Finns believe that the problems often associated with external standardized testing – narrowing of the curriculum, teaching to the test, unethical practices related to manipulating test results, and unhealthy competition among schools – can be more problematic.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, Developing Effective Teachers and School Leaders. The Case of Finland“. In: Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 41

 

Standardized testing that compares individuals to statistical averages ...

„Standardized testing that compares individuals to statistical averages, competition that leaves weaker students behind, and merit-based pay for teachers all jeopardize schools’ efforts to enhance equity. None of these factors currently exists in the Finnish education system.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, „Finnish Lessons 2.0“ (2015), S. 66

 

What gets assessed is what gets taught ...

„It is almost a truism that what gets assessed is what gets taught and if a system judges teachers and schools largely on the results of standardised tests, it can lead to narrowing the curriculum as they focus on the skills that are tested and give less attention to learners’ wider developmental and educational needs.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Scotland“ (2015), S. 152

 

Testing what students have learned in school ...

„Testing what students have learned in school is not a bad thing as long as it does not harm teaching and learning. Problems arise when tests become higher in stakes, when they are of poor quality, and when students’ test scores are used to judge other things, such as the quality of teachers or schools.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, „Finnish Lessons 2.0“ (2015), S. 94

 

Finnish system not infected by market-based reform models ...

„The Finnish system has not been infected by market-based education reform models, such as tougher competition between schools over enrollment, standardization of teaching and learning in schools, and high-stakes testing policies.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, „Finnish Lessons 2.0“ (2015), S. 48f

 

The kinds of skills that are easiest to teach and test ...

„The kinds of skills that are easiest to teach and test are also easiest to automate, digitise and outsource.“

Dr. Andreas Schleicher, „Schools for 21st-Century Learners“ (2015), S. 12

 

The focus of national evaluations is on the education system ...

Finnland: „The focus of national evaluations is on the education system, not on individual schools and there is no system for school inspection.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Assuring Quality in Education“ (2015), S. 157

 

School competition is not related to better mathematics performance ...

„The latest PISA results show that, on average across countries, school competition is not related to better mathematics performance among students.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“ Nr. 42, August 2014, S. 2

 

Finns want to avoid the disadvantages often associated with external testing ...

„Finns want to avoid the disadvantages often associated with external standardised testing – narrowing of the curriculum, teaching to the test, and unhealthy competition among schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 175

 

Gelingen von Bildungsprozessen ...

„Man muss sich im Klaren darüber sein, dass das Gelingen von Bildungsprozessen weder an Standards gemessen noch an Erfolgsquoten welcher Art auch immer überprüft werden kann.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Konrad Paul Liessmann, „Geisterstunde – Die Praxis der Unbildung“ (2014), S. 130

 

Standards only measure a small percentage of what a student actually knows ...

„The standards only measure a small percentage of what a student actually knows or has learned over the course of a school year. A standardized test cannot measure or encourage growth or improvement, creativity, or curiosity – all essential elements to foster true learning.“

Kelly Lynch, „A Comparison of the American Common Core State Standards with the Finnish“ (2014), S. 40

 

Wie sich am Absturz Schwedens in der letzten PISA-Runde lernen lässt ...

„Wie sich am Absturz Schwedens in der letzten PISA-Runde lernen lässt, verlieren gerade jene, die die Umstellung auf Vermessungsstrategien mit Standardisierung und Konkurrenz am konsequentesten umgesetzt haben, genau gemessen an jenen Parametern, die zu diesen Programmen Anlass gaben.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stefan Hopmann, in „Alois Mock: Visionen im Spiegel der Zeit“ (2014), S. 100

 

Very limited conceptualisations of human capabilities ...

„Current discussions focus on promoting skills by improving schools. Within this very narrow purview, the success of schools is measured by scores on the exams of the students in them. This mindset is a consequence of very limited conceptualisations of human capabilities that assumes that achievement tests capture the important life skills. It misses important dimensions of human flourishing.“

Dr. Tim Kautz u. a., „Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success“ (2014), S. 11

 

There is pressure on both students and teachers ...

„There is pressure on both students and teachers to concentrate on the specific content and format of the tests, which leads to a narrowing of the delivered curriculum. Excessive time spent on test preparation reduces the amount of content to which students are exposed.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Netherlands“ (2014), S. 73

 

High stakes associated with the test lead to a narrowing of the delivered curriculum ...

„There is a risk that the high stakes associated with the test lead to a narrowing of the delivered curriculum and, possibly, a shift of emphasis from other valued outcomes of schooling.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Netherlands“ (2014), S. 74

 

Monitoring is not always the solution ...

„Monitoring is not always the solution because it is costly and can have perverse effects on incentives if it is badly implemented. Moreover, monitoring can actually create a system of distrust between stakeholders.“

Dr. Lucie Cerna, „Trust: What it is and Why it Matters for Governance and Education“ (2014), S. 30

 

Weg in die intellektuelle Armut ...

„Eine gute Testaufgabe – bei der man genau benennen kann, was sie misst – ist das Gegenteil einer bildenden Schulaufgabe, welche geistige Vielfalt und Debatte über diese Vielfalt herausfordert. Deshalb führt der Weg der immer stärkeren Standardisierung von Bildung – getragen von einem nicht hinterfragten Glauben an die mathematische Modellierbarkeit des menschlichen Geistes – das Schulsystem in eine Kultur der intellektuellen Armut.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wolfram Meyerhöfer, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom 27. September 2013

 

Summative assessment culture emerged in many parts of the world ...

„The summative assessment culture that has emerged in many parts of the world, especially in the United States, has undermined one of the most potent uses of tests; i.e., as learning tools.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Olusola Adesope u. a., „The neglected benefits of testing: Implications for classroom and self-directed learning“ in „The WERA Educational Journal“, August 2013, S. 22

 

Standard-Tests führen zu keiner nachhaltigen Leistungssteigerung ...

„Die internationale Forschung zeigt, dass Standard-Tests zu keiner nachhaltigen Leistungssteigerung führen - eher im Gegenteil.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stefan Hopmann, Die Furche vom 18. April 2013

 

Tests vernachlässigen zwingend genau das, was das Interessante von Bildung ausmacht ... ...

„Tests vernachlässigen zwingend genau das, was das Interessante von Bildung ausmacht.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wolfram Meyerhöfer, „Unterrichten – standardisiertes Testen – Erziehen. Effekte der Standardisierung“ in Lin-Klitzing u. a., „Zur Vermessung von Schule“ (2013), S. 183

 

Finland least follows standardized-test based model of global education ...

Finnland: „PISA has thrown a country to the top of the international ranking charts that least follows the OECD’s ‘standard global reform package’ – i.e. an accountability-driven and standardized-test based model of global education.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Heinz-Dieter Meyer u. a., „PISA and the Globalization of Education Governance: some puzzles and problems“ in Meyer u. a., „PISA, Power und Policy“ (2013), S. 14

 

Finland has not followed the Anglo-Saxon accountability movement ...

„Finland has not followed the Anglo-Saxon accountability movement in basic education, which believes in making schools and teachers accountable for learning outcomes. There are consequently no inspection systems or centrally organized examinations or nationwide tests in basic education.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Tiina Silander u. a., „The Theory and practice of Building Pedagogical Skill in Finnish Teacher Education“ in Meyer u. a., „PISA, Power und Policy“ (2013), S. 79

 

Unnatural focus on testing ...

USA: „This unnatural focus on testing produced perverse but predictable results: it narrowed the curriculum; many districts scaled back time for the arts, history, civics, physical education, science, foreign language, and whatever was not tested.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Diane Ravitch, „Reign of Error – The Hoax of the Privatization Movement and the Danger to America’s Public Schools“ (2013), S. 13

 

Continued use of external accountability will reduce both performance and motivation ...

„Although external accountability may be a useful strategy at the early stages of an improvement process, its continued use will reduce both performance and motivation.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. David Hopkins, „Exploding the myths of school reform. CSE Seminar Papers No. 224“ (2013), S. 9

 

The monitoring of student outcomes must extend beyond knowledge skills ...

„The monitoring of student outcomes must extend beyond knowledge skills in key subject areas and include broader learning outcomes, including students’ critical thinking skills, social competencies, engagement with learning and overall well-being.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Synergies for Better Learning“ (2013), S. 25

 

There are a range of statistical, methodological and practical challenges in using student standardised assessment results to appraise individual teachers ...

„There are a range of statistical, methodological and practical challenges in using student standardised assessment results to appraise individual teachers. […] Safeguards should be established against a simplistic use of student test results for high-stakes decisions about teachers.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Synergies for Better Learning“ (2013), S. 337

 

As standardised student assessment becomes a more profitable industry ...

„As standardised student assessment becomes a more profitable industry, companies have strong incentives to lobby for the expansion of student standardised assessment as an educational policy therefore influencing the activities within the evaluation and assessment framework.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Synergies for Better Learning“ (2013), S. 51

 

Ignoring evidence proving the instability of test scores ...

„In some countries (notably the United States [US]), current policies have prioritised test scores, ignoring evidence proving their instability. These policies tend to promote teaching to standardised tests, a narrowing of the curriculum, and a culture of competitiveness among teachers.“

Laura Figazzolo, „The Use and Misuse of Teacher Appraisal“ (2013), S. 6

 

Täuschungsstrategien nehmen zu ...

„Täuschungsstrategien nehmen zu; die Orientierung auf quantitative Steigerung der gemessenen Leistungen kann mit einer Verringerung der Breite und qualitativen Tiefe der Lernerfahrungen oder gar mit einem Ausschluss von schwachen Schülerinnen und Schülern von Lern- und Prüfungsgelegenheiten einhergehen.“

BIFIE (Hrsg.), „Nationaler Bildungsbericht - Österreich 2012“ (2013), Band 2, S. 377

 

Standardisierte Tests als Bewertungsmaßstab ...

„In dem Maße, in dem man standardisierte Tests als Bewertungsmaßstab für Schulen heranzieht, drängt man die sokratischen Anteile in Curricula und Methodik in den Hintergrund.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Martha Nussbaum, „Nicht für den Profit! Warum Demokratie Bildung braucht“ (2012), S. 66

 

USA: Schools narrowing their curriculum and focusing on test preparation ...

„In the United States, the singular focus on a cognitive achievement gap created by national policy and funding has led to schools narrowing their curriculum and focusing on test preparation as a major instructional strategy.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Henry M. Levin, „More than just test scores“ (2012)

 

Teaching in Finland is a very sophisticated profession ...

„Unlike nations that have bureaucratic accountability systems that make teachers feel threatened, overcontrolled, and undervalued, teaching in Finland is a very sophisticated profession, in which teachers feel they can truly exercise the knowledge and skills they have learned in the university.“

Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, „Lessons from Finland“. In: „American Educator“ (Sommer 2011), S. 36

 

Crushing the system by their sheer weight ...

„It is not the presence of standards and assessment that is the problem, but rather the attitude (philosophy or theory of action) that underpins them, and their dominance (as when they become so heavily laden that they crush the system by their sheer weight).“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Michael Fullan, „Choosing the wrong drivers for whole system reform“ (2011), S. 8

 

Singapore’s Primary School leaving Examination carries astonishingly high stakes ...

„Singapore’s Primary School leaving Examination at the end of Year 6 is not just one more standardized test. It carries astonishingly high stakes. Pupils’ scores affect the status of the secondary school they or their parents might be able to choose and the stream (or track) that they will be assigned to.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Andy Hargreaves u. a., „The global fourth way“ (2011), S. 74

 

Accountability or feedback systems based on the use of measurable performance ...

„Accountability or feedback systems based on the use of measurable performance indicators may create messages that give incentives for schools to focus mainly on areas that are easily measured. This may result in the neglect of areas where measurement is more difficult.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education – Sweden“ (2011), S. 90

 

Hoping that weak students drop out ...

USA: „Teachers and administrators also move students that they expect not to test well out of the schools, or treat them poorly hoping they will drop out, or they hold them back so they get to be a year older and maybe a little smarter before they have to take the tests, and so forth.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. David Berliner, „The Context for Interpreting PISA Results in the USA“ in Pereyra u.a. (Hrsg.), „PISA Under Examination“ (2011), S. 87

 

Demotivierung der Lehrkräfte, Verengung des Lehrplans und Unzuverlässigkeit der Tests ...

„In den USA macht man seit mindestens 25 Jahren Erfahrungen mit einer standardbasierten Schulreform. Obwohl man immer wieder von großen Erfolgen dieser Reform hören kann, trifft bei nüchterner Betrachtung eher das Gegenteil zu. Probleme zeigen sich in mindestens drei Bereichen: Demotivierung der Lehrkräfte, Verengung des Lehrplans und Unzuverlässigkeit der Tests.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Walter Herzog, Tagung des Wissenschaftlichen Beirats des Deutschen Philologenverbandes, 8./9. Oktober 2010

 

Finland never developed national standardized tests ...

„Finland never developed national standardized tests for evaluation of the comprehensive schools or their students, and does not publish statistics that would allow ranking of either individual schools or students.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Charles Sabel u. a., „Individualized Service Provision in the New Welfare State: Lessons from Special Education in Finland“ (2010), S. 25

 

The so-called accountability movement has not closed the achievement gap ...

USA: „It has been shown that the so-called accountability movement has not closed the achievement gap as it was intended to; and that the dropout rate for students from poorer families has risen.“

Debbie Tye u.a., „The Slow Death of the American Teacher“ (2010) in „Scholarlypartnershipsedu“, Vol. 5, S. 33